LAST PAGE INDEX
DUNFERMLINE ABBEY AND MONASTERY OF THE ORDER OF ST. BENEDICT. - Shortly
after his accession to the throne this year, David I. raised the Church of
the Holy Trinity, at Dunfermline, to the rank and dignity of an Abbey, and
translated to it a colony of 13 Benedictine monks from Canterbury, in
England - this carrying out the pious wishes of his deceased brother and
predecessor.  Thus there were belonging to the Abbey, in 1124, 13 Culdees
and 13 Benedictine monks.

ABBOT GAUFRID, sometimes called "Gosfredus," one of the 13 monks brought to
Dunfermline from Canterbury, was chosen Abbot (first abbot) of Dunfermline;
but in consequence of a dispute regarding the election of a Bishop of St.
Andrews, Gaufrid, although elected Abbot, could not therefore at the time
be consecrated Abbot until after the dispute was settled, which was not
until 1127, the year in which the Bishop of St. Andrews was consecrated.

THE MONASTERY, founded and finished by Alexander I., inter 1115-1124, stood
a little to the south of the Abbey, was of such ample dimensions that any
three sovereigns could be accommodated and entertained within its walls
without inconvenience. (Matthew of Westminster; Mercer's Hist. Dunf. p.55,
&c.  See also date 1304 of Annals of Dunfermline.)

It may here be noticed, that a very great many historians write down the
names of "Abbey" and of "Monastery" indiscriminately, as if they were
interchangable.  They are quite distinct in their meanings.  "Abbey" is the
building in which worship was conducted; and "Monastery," the houses and
offices for the accommodation of the monks, the resident worshippers, &c.

Although Dunfermline had now an Abbey, it is remarkable that it is not so
designated in its chartulary, or register - perhaps "Church of the Holy
Trinity" was retained in consequence of the great many valuable properties
that had been bequeathed to it under that title or designation, previous to
its elevation to the rank of an Abbey (1074-1124), and probably it would be
more secure to keep by its early dedication title, in order to prevent
future legal disputes about its gifts and possessions.  Henceforward from
this date the designation, "Church of the Holy Trinity," will, in the
Annals, be in a great measure superseded by the new designation of "Abbey."

CHARTER, &C., OF DAVID I. TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - There are in the printed
"Registrum de Dunfermelyn," between pages 2 and 19, no less than 34
charters, writs, and memoranda, from David I. to the Abbey, viz., Two
Confirmation Charters, followed by 32 lesser ones (consisting of from 3 to
20 lines).  None of them are noted with either "Anno Gratiae," or "Anno
Regni;" and, in one or two instances, even the names of the places, where
they were written or granted, are omitted!  Besides all this, they do not
follow each other in the order of time in which they were written, which,
unfortunately, is the case with many other charters and writs in the
Register.  But there can be no doubt that the greater number of them were
granted between the years 1124 and 1130.  (See An. of Dunf. dates 1127 and
1130.)  A great many of these writs should have preceded the two
Confirmation Charters, both in the MS. chartulary, and in its printed
Registrum de Dunfermelyn.  Dalyell, in his "Monastic Antiquities," p.8, in
alluding to the manuscript Register (which he had perused), states that "it
contains above 600 deeds of different descriptions, all arranged in the
most irregular manner," &c.  This circumstance, along with want of dates of
any kind, makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, in many cases,
to fix the time when some of the charters, &c., were written.

In order to approximate to the dates of the charters, recourse must be had
to the list of witnesses affixed to them; we must then find out when any of
the witnesses died, nearest to the supposed date of the given charter, and
the date of that death will be a stop to advancing further; while some
notable incident may be found as a limit in the opposite direction.  (See
the two testing cases at the close of "David's Confirmation Charters," Nos.
1 and 2, in the Annals, under dates 1127 and 1130; and for an account of
the Chartulary itself, see Appendix D.)

TRANSLATION OF MONKS FROM CANTERBURY TO DUNFERMLINE BY DAVID I. - In the
year 1124, David I. translated Gauford and 13 monks from Canterbury for the
service of his newly-founded Abbey and Monastery of Dunfermline.  Gaufred,
or Gosfrid, was "an eminent theologian of his day, was chosen Abbot of
Dunfermline in 1124, but was not consecrated until 1127 or 1128."  Of this
translation, Winton, in his "Cronykil," says -

"Of Canturbery in Dunfermlyne
Mwnkis he browcht, and put thame syn,
And dowyt thame rycht rychely,
With gret possessyounys and mony."

(Wynton's "Cronikil," vii.p.6; Hist of Scot. &c.)

ST. JEROME'S LATIN BIBLE. - A beautifully written and illuminated copy (in
MS., of course) of Jerome's Latin Bible was used in the Abbey service, at
Dunfermline, from its foundation in 1124 till its destruction in 1560.
Some have thought that this Dunfermline copy is as old as the days of
Malcolm III. and St. Margaret; but we are rather inclined to think that it
was brought from Canterbury this year by Gaufrid, the Abbot.

This Bible is still in existence, and in good preservation in the
Advocates' Library, where it is shown as one of its choicest literary
treasures.  It is written on vellum, is quite entire, legible, and clean,
except at some parts where it is a little soiled with grease spots, which
appears to have been caused by the frequent anointing with the Holy Oil.
The leaves are ornamented with a great variety of figures, such as
scriptural and historical subjects, and there are several seemingly out of
place, as they are sinularly grotesque.  It is not in the original binding;
it was re-bound about 40 years ago in a very elegant and expensive way.
This Bible was used in the Abbey service at Dunfermline from about this
period, 1124, down to the Reformation in 1560, when it was taken by Abbot
Dury, the last Abbot, to France, along with other sacred relics.
Afterwards it came into the possession of the celebrated Mons. Foucalt, as
appears from his arms on it.  At his sale it was bought by a Scotch
gentleman, and brought back to this country, and deposited as a gift in the
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.  (Fernie's Hist. Dunf. p.89; Mercer's Hist.
Dunf.; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.156, &c.)

1125. - DUNFERMLINE MONKS TRANSLATED TO URQUHART. - This year David I.
transferred a colony of 13 Benedictine Monks from Dunfermline Abbey to his
newly erected Priory at Urquhart, in Morayshire. (Chalmers's Hist. Dunf.
vol.i.p.204.)

1126. - DAVID I.: HIS (APOCRYPHAL) "VISIOUN." - As the following note has
long been in print, and, although questionable, still continues to be now
and then quoted, we here reproduce it under this date, the probable one, if
it ever did occur:-

"In the quilk tyme David mad mony castell and abbays, and chanounryes, wyth
sundry nunerys and mayson Dieuwis - that is to say, almis houssis, in the
honoure of God and our Lady, Sweet Saynt Mary - and began throu a visioun
he met in his sleep at Dunfermlyn." (Hailes's An. Scot. vol.iii.p.311.)

BURGUM MEUM DE DUNFERMLYN (ROYAL BURGH OF DUNFERMLINE. - As previously
noted, a great many of the small writs of David I. in favour of the Abbey
were granted between 1124 and 1130, and, although they are incorporated in
the great "Confirmation Charters"(see dates 1127-1130) we shall copy, at
least, one of the writs entire, because it has in it the first intimation
on record of Dunfermline being "my burgh"(burgum meum), or "King's burgh."
The writ on which it occurs is No.26, p.15, of the printed "Registrum de
Dunfermlyn," and is titled "De Decimis de Dunfermlyn."  This writ, like the
other writs in the chartulary, is in Latin.  The following is a free
translation of it:-

"David, by the Grace of God, King of Scots, wishes health to Robert, elect
of St. Andrews, and also to all his Earls and Barons, and all his faithful
subjects.  Know ye that I have granted and given in perpetuity in alms, for
the soul of my father and mother and brothers, and predecessors, to the
Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline, all the teinds of all my
property of Dunfermline (but not of that which belongs to other Churches)
free and quiet; and another in my BURGH of DUNFERMLINE (Burgo meo de
Dunfermlyn), and another in my burgh of Stirling, and another in my burgh
of Perth, and another in my burgh of Edinburgh. - Witness, ROBERT, elect of
St. Andrews, and HERBERT, chancellor. - At Dunfermline."

This writ has no date, neither is the year of the reign mentioned; but it
is evident that David was King of Scots when it was granted.  He succeeded
to the Scottish throne in the year 1124; and Robert was Bishop-Elect of St.
Andrews from 1122 to 1127; consequently, the writ dates 1124-1127.  We
place it under date 1125 as the most probable date.  It may be noted that,
although the expression, "burgo meo de Dunfermlyn" is for the first time
noticed in this writ, it does not imply that the designation was for the
first time used in 1126.  It comes into notice in the charter as a use-and
-wont designation.  Alexander I., between 1107 and 1124, created several
Royal Burghs, among which were those, it would appear, noticed in the writ.
It is likely that Dunfermline was made a Royal Burgh by Alexander I. early
in his reign.(See An. Dunf. dates 1109,1112,1115.)

1127. - GAUFRID CONSECRATED ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE. - Gaufrid, appointed
Abbot of Dunfermline in 1124, was this year (1127) consecrated Abbot of
Dunfermline, by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews.  After the consecration, the
Abbot could legally attend clerical meetings, and append his signature to
charters, deeds, and writs.

He was a man of sinular piety and learning, and was, previous to his
leaving Canterbury in 1124, Prior thereof.  Gaufrid's name often occurs as
a witness in charters, &c., inter 1128-1154.

Sir James Dalrymple, in his "Historical Collections," at p.243, notes:-
"In 1128, it is observed in continuation - Vir religionis eximiae
Cantuariae, Prior Gosfridus nomine, Rege Scottorum David petente et
Archiepiscopo Willielmo annuente, Abbas eligitur ad locum in Scotia qui
Dunfermlin dicitur.  Ordinatus est autem a Roberto, Episcopo Sancti
Andreae."  Translation : "The Prior of Canterbury, Gosfrid by name, a man
of singular piety, at the request of David, King of Scots, and with the
consent of Archbishop William, is elected abbot to a place in Scotland
which is called Dunfermline.  He was ordained, moreover, by Robert, Bishop
of St. Andrews." (See also Chalmer's History of Dunfermline, vol ii.p.212.

TRANSLATION OF THE CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF KING DAVID I. TO DUNFERMLINE
ABBEY. - No.i. (Printed registrum de Dunfermelyn, pp. 3,4.)

"In the name of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, I, David, by the Grace of
God, King of the Scots, by my Royal authority and power, with the consent
of Henry, my son, and of Matilda, the Queen, my wife, with the confirmation
and testimony of the Bishops, Earls, and Barons of my Kingdom, the Clergy
also, and the People acquiescing, do hereby grant and, in perpetual peace,
confirm all the possessions written below to the Church of the Holy Trinity
of Dunfermline, which was begun through the zeal and liberality of my
predecessors; and I set forth the gifts of my father and mother as follows,
viz.:- PARDUSIN, PETHNAURCHA, PETCORTHIN, PETBACHELIN, LAUER, BOLGIN,
SCHYRE of KIRCALETHIN, INUIRESC, the lesser: The Gifts of my brother,
DUNCAN - the two Villas called LUSCAR: The Gifts of my bother EDGAR - the
SCHYRE of GELLALD: The Gifts of my brother ETHELREDE - Hale: The Gifts of
my brother ALEXANDER, the King - DUNINAD, SCHYRE of GATEMILC, PETCONMARTHIN,
BALEKERIN, DRUMBERNIN, KEETH: The Gifts of SIBILLE, the Queen - BEETH. And
these foresaid Gifts of my predecessors, with their appendages and right
divisions, I freely grant forever to the foresaid Church.  Further, my own
Gifts follow, viz. - DUNFERMLINE on this side of the water on which the
same Church is situated; KINGORN, nearest to Dunfermline, and its
appendages: FOETH, INVERESK, the Greater, with its MILL and FISHINGS; a
MANSION in Berwick, another in the Burgh of Edinburgh, a third in the Burgh
of Stirling, a fourth in the Burgh of Dunfermline, and a fifth in the Burgh
of Perth, and the CHURCH of the Burgh of Perth; also the interest of 100
shillings in England: All these foresaid Gifts I grant to the foresaid
Church, in free and quiet possession, in the same manner as I possess my
own lands, excepting the defence of my kingdom and Regal justice, should
the Abbot in his Court decide cases with a disregard to justice: Likewise,
I grant the eighth part of all the judgments and lawsuits of Fife and
Fothrif, and the tenth part of the whole of my CAN which shall be brought
to Dunfermline: And all the teinds of the Prebend which shall be brought to
the same place from Fife and Fothrif; and a tenth of all the game that
shall be brought to the same place; and the HALF of the SKINS, TALLOW, and
FAT of all the beasts that shall be killed for the festivals to be held at
Stirling, and between the Forth and the Tay: I grant likewise the CAN of
one SHIP, free and quiet, wherever it may land in my kingdom: I grant
likewise, that they have in my forests everything necessary for fire, and
for their buildings, as to myself, and to their men, as to mine: Further, I
wish that they have freely without calumny all the offerings that shall be
presented at the High Altar of the said Church: Also I grant of the Seals
taken at Kinghorn, that they have the SEVENTH, after they have been tithed:
I likewise grant the tenth of all the Iron and the Salt that may be brought
for my use at Dunfermline: Furthermore, I give a taxed Church, with all its
privileges, which through the clemency of God it at present possesses, as
the present privilege testifies, and in future, through the same clemency,
may possess: We decree that it be possessed, in the utmost tranquillity,
entirely free from any subjection or exaction, either ecclesiastical or
secular, with the exception of canonical obedience, which every Church, all
the world over, owes to its mother Church: And let it possess the same
freedom in all things which the Church of St. Andrews holds, with rights
undiminished, forever.  To preserve its rights, also previously noticed in
this grant, and the privileges of its rank unimpaired, and to strengthen
them with perpetual stability, We, who are present, by confirming, ordain,
and by ordaining confirm, to our successors, under this condition, that if
any one should wish to disturb these things, and strive to overturn,
diminish, and violate our decrees, let him not be ignorant that he is
striving against the Saviour of the world himself, and, unless he repent,
he will incur eternal damnation, and God will blot out of the Book of Life
him who abstracts anything from the rights and powers granted to the
foresaid Church.  Amen. So be it. - *(seal) I, ROBERT, Bishop of St.
Andrews, confirm; * I, JOHN, Bishop of Glasgow, confirm; * I, CORMACCUS,
Bishop of Dunkeld, confirm; * I, GREGORY, Bishop of Moray confirm; * I,
MACBETH, Bishop of Rosemarky, confirm.  Of this privilege also are
witnesses and assertors:- EDWARD, Earl; CONSTANTINE, Earl; MALISE, Earl;
ROTHERI, Earl; MADITH, Earl; GILLEMICHEL MACDUFF; HERBERT, Chancellor; HUGO
DE MOREVILL, ROBERT CORBET, ROBERT MONTACUTE, MALDOUENI MACCOBETH;
MALDOUENI of Scoon; GILLEPATRIC MACIMPETHIN; ALWYN MACARKIL; ROBERT BURGH;
EDWARD, son of Siward; WALCLINUS, Chaplain." (Vide Printed "Registrum de
Dunfermelyn," pp.3,4.)

It will be observed that this Charter has neither the date of the year, nor
the year of the reign in it; but as Robert Bishop of St. Andrews was not
consecrated a bishop until late in the year 1127, and he appears to have
been disqualified from adhibiting his signature to legal documents until
after his consecration ceremony was accomplished.  He was nominated Bishop
of St. Andrews in the year 1122; but owing to "a vexatious dispute," he was
not consecreated until 1127, as noted, and therefore no legal document
connected with the diocese of St. Andrews, in which Dunfermline was
situated, appears to have been signed by him.  Therefore, this first
Confirmation Charter of David I. to Dunfermline Abbey would not be written
before 1127: and as Constantine, Earl of Fife, is one of the witnesses to
it, the date cannot be later than 1129, for Constantine died during this
year; consequently, 1127-1129 is the period when it was written, but it is
probable that 1127 is the correct date of it, viz., that of the date of
Robert's consecration as Bishop of St. Andrews, who thereby had a legal
right to sign legal documents in his diocese.

1129. - CONSTANTINE, THIRD EARL OF FIFE, died and was interred at
Dunfermline (perhaps within the walls of the Abbey).  He is one of the
witnesses to David I.'s Charter of Confirmation to Dunfermline Abbey.
(Regist. de Dunf. p.4; Sibbald's Hist. Fife, p.227; Chalmers' Hist. Dunf.
p.133.)

THE MILL OF DUNFERMLINE. - There must have been a Mill for grinding victual
in Dunfermline as early as this period.  David, in his second Confirmation
Charter, gives the tenth part of it to the Abbot and Monks (David's
Confirmation Charter, No.2.)

"THE SHIP OF INVERKEITHING." - David I. bestowed on the Abbot and Monks the
"Ship of Inverkeithing," under certain conditions.  (Vide print. Regist. de
Dunf. p. 7; also Second Confirmation Charter, Annals of Dunfermline.)  In
the original charter, the words conveying the gift, are - "I concede to the
Church of the Holy Trinity the Passage and Ship of Inverkeithing."

1130. - TRANSLATION OF THE CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF KING DAVID I. TO
DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - NO.2. (Printed Registrum de Dunfermelyn, pp.5-7.)

"In the name of the Holy Trinity, I, David, by the Grace of God, King of
the Scots, by my Royal authority and power, with the consent of Henry, my
son, and of Matilda, the Queen, my wife, with the confirmation and
testimony of the Bishops, Earls, and Barons of my Kingdom, the Clergy also
and the People acquiescing, do hereby grant, and in perpetual peace confirm,
all the possessions written below to the Church of the Holy Trinity of
Dunfermline, which was begun through the zeal and liberality of my
predecessors.  I set forth the gifts of my father and mother as follows,
viz.:-PARDUSIN, PETNAURCHA, PETTECORTHIN, PETBACLACHIN, LAUAR, BOLGIN, the
SCHIRE of KIRCALADINIT, INVERESK the LESSER: The Gifts of my brother DUNCAN
- the two Villas called LUSCAR: The Gifts of my brother EDGAR - the SCHYRE
of GELLALD: The Gifts of my brother ETHELREDE - HALES: The Gifts of my
brother ALEXANDER, the King - PRIMROS, the SCHYRE of GATEMILC,
PETCONMARCHIN, BALCHERIN, DRUMBERNIN, KETH: The Gifts of SIBILLE, the Queen
- BEETH: And these foresaid Gifts of my predecessors, with their appendages
my own gifts follow: - Dunfermline, on this side of the water on which the
same Church is situated; Kingorn, nearest to Dunfermline, and its
appendages - FOET; INVEREST the Greater, with its MILL and FISHING; and
SMITHETUN and CREFBARRIN; and the CHURCH of INFESK and WYMET (WEMYSS), with
their right divisions, and a carrucate of land, and PETIOKER: Besides, I
give and grant, with the consent of Earl Henry, my son, for the salvation
of our souls and those of our ancestor, in perpetual alms, NITHBREN and its
appendages, and BELACHRISTIN, with its proper divisions in meadows and
pastures, excepting the rights which the Culdees ought to possess, and
everything justly belonging to them, as they were granted to the foresaid
Church as an endowment on the day it was dedicated: Besides, I give to the
same Church a Mansion on BERWICK, another in ROXBURGH, another in the Burgh
of HADDINGTON, another in EDINBURGH, another in LINLITHGOW, another in the
Burgh of STIRLING, and two Churches in the same, and a carrucate of land
adjoining the Church; and also all the tithes of my Lordships, in fruits,
in animals, in fish from my own nets, and also in feu-duties, and the tenth
of my Can of the whole Castle district and the mansions of Roger the
presbyter, as fully as he himself sane and safe has held them, and one net
and a-half; and one MANSION in the BURGH of DUNFERMLINE, in free and quiet
possession, and a tenth of the feu-duties of the BURGH, and a tenth of its
MILL, and of all my Lordships in Dunfermline; also a MANSION in the Burgh of
Perth, and likewise its Church, and a Mansion belinging to the Church, with
all the tithes of my Lordship: Moreover, all the foresaid Gifts I grant to
the foresaid Church in free and quiet possession, in such a manner as I
possess my own lands, excepting the defence of my kingdom and regal
justice, should the Abbot in his Court decide cases with a disregard to
justice: I also grant every eighth part of all decrees and fines of Fife
and Fothrif, and all the tithes of the whole of my Can, and of the malt of
Fife and Fothrif, excepting the rights belonging to the Abbey of Dunkeld:
And likewise the tenth of all the game taken between Lammermuir and the
Tay; and also the half of the skins, tallow, and fat of all the beasts that
shall be killed for the festivals to be held at Stirling, and between the
Forth and Tay: I also grant that they may have in my forests every thing
necessary for fire, and for their buildings, as to myself, and to their
men, as to mine, I wish that at the High Altar of the foresaid Church: And
I also grant that of the Seals taken at Kinghorn, they have the seventh
after they have been tithed: I likewise grant the tenth of all the Iron and
the Salt that may be brought to the Church of the Holy Trinity the whole
parish of Fothrif, and so I grant: Further, I give and grant in alms, for
ever, to the Church of the Holy Trinity, that tract of land called
ALDESTELLE, and all that justly belongs to it; the tract given is in
Berwick, free and quiet; besides, I prohibit any caution from being taken
over the land or the vassals belonging to the Holy Trinity for the
forfeiture of any one, not for their own proper forfeiture; and also I
grant that all their slaves, that my father and my mother and my brothers
gave to it, be justly restored to the Church of the Holy Trinity, and all
their cumerlache (runaway slaves), from the time of Edgar, the King, until
this day, with all their money, wherever they may be found, I prohibit them
on my forfeiture from being unjustly retained: I grant also to the Abbot
and Monks all the men, with all their money, in whose land so ever they may
have been, who were on the lands at the time they were offered and given to
the Church of the Holy Trinity: I likewise grant to the foresaid Church to
tenth of all my wild mares of Fife and Fothriff: And I also grant to the
Abbot and Monks that they have, throughout the whole of my land, everything
they buy for their own necessary wants free of duty: Besides all before
mentioned, I grant and give to the Abbot and Monks the sum of 5 merks of
silver yearly for the purchase of vestments, brought in the first ships
that arrive at Stirling or Perth: I also grant to the Church of the Holy
Trinity the SHIP and the PASSAGE of INVERKEITHING, such as I possessed it
in my Lordship, on condition, however, that all travellers and messengers,
coming and going to and from me, and also the persons belonging to my
Court, and also that my sons have a free passage in the same ship; and if
it should happen at any time, that any one of the before-mentioned persons
should not be permitted a free passage, and the Abbot hear the complaint
without giving redress, that I myself shall have power to correct this
without hindrance from the Abbot and the brethren of the Church: I also
grant willingly to what extent the Abbot and Monks of the Holy Trinity do
not reply to any one inflicting damage in regard to the vassals who were in
the lands, at the time they were offered and given to the Church of the
Holy Trinity: Also, I grant to the Church of the Holy Trinity the tenth
part of the whole of my Can of Clackmannan; the Abbot and Monks of the
Church of the Holy Trinity have, in the whole of the King's jurisdiction on
this side of Lammermuir, every Saturday in Court one skin, and the sixth
Saturday they have two skins and two parts of the fat, and the sixth skin
of the RAMS and LAMBS: I also grant to the same Church the half part of my
tithe of Ergaithel (Argyll) and of Kintire, in every year in which I myself
receive the Can: And, furthermore, I give a taxed Church, with all its
privileges, which through the clemency of God it now possesses, and in
future through the same clemency may possess:  We decree that it be
possessed, in the utmost tranquillity and entirely free from any subjection
or exaction, either secular or ecclesiastical, excepting only that
canonical obedience which, all the world over, every Church owes to its
mother Church: I likewise grant to the foresaid Church a certain Fishery at
Perth, as freely and peaceably as I possess my own there.  To preserve its
rights, also previously noticed in this grant, and the privileges of its
rank unimpaired, and to strengthen them with perpetual stability, We, who
are present, by confirming, ordain, and by ordaining confirm, to our
successors, under this condition, that if any one should wish to disturb
these things, and strive to overturn, diminish, and violate our decrees,
let him not be ignorant that he is striving against the Saviour of the
world himself, and, unless he repent, he will incur eternal damnation, and
God will blot out of the Book of Life him who abstracts anything from the
right and powers granted to the forsaid Church.  Amen. So be it. - *(seal)
I, ROBERT, Bishop of St. Andrews, confirm; * I, G.G., Bishop of Dunkeld,
confirm; * I, ANDREW, Bishop of Catiness, confirm. Of this privilege also
are witnesses and assertors:- WALTER, the Chancellor; DUNCAN, Earl; HUGH DE
MOREVILLE; WALTER DE LINDSAY; ROBERT AUENEL; WALTER RIDEL; HERBERT, the
Chamberlain; NICHOLAS, the Clerk; ALWYN, the son of Arkil; EWEN, the
Marischal; GILLECOLM MAC CHIMPETHIN; MACBETH MAC TORFIN; MEVIN, the son of
Colbain." (Vide Printed Registrum de Dunfermelyn, pp.5-7; Fernie's Hist.
Dunf. pp.187-193; Mercer's Hist. Dunf. pp.316-320.)

This Charter enumerates several gifts, &c., bequeathed to the Abbey by
David I., which are not noticed in the First Confirmation Charter; besides,
it recapitulates the gifts and privileges of that charter; consequently,
this Second Confirmation Charter must have been written after the date of
the first one, for the special purpose of incorporating in it the several
new gifts and privileges which he had bestowed on the Abbey after the first
was written.  By comparing the two Confirmation Charters with each other,
the new additional gifts, &c., inserted in this second Charter, and not to
be found in the first one, will readily be discovered.

Like the first Confirmation Charter, this second one has neither date of
the year, nor year of the reign; and, therefor, to ascertain the date of
this Charter, within as narrow limits as possible, recourse must be had to
the first recurring deaths amongst the witnesses affixed to it.  In the
investigation it will be found that Constantine, Earl of Fife, who died in
1129, is not in the list of witnesses here.  His successor, Duncan, Earl of
Fife, is a witness.  Again, Matilda, the Queen, died in 1130.  At the
beginning of the Charter she is noticed as an acquiescing witness;
therefore, this second Confirmation Charter must have been written between
1129 and 1130 - the date 1130 being probably the most correct one - and we
have placed this Charter under it in the Annals.  It thus appears that
nearly three years may have elapsed between the first and the second
Confirmation Charters, granted by King David I. to Dunfermline Abbey.

1133. - PETER, the Prior of Dunfermline, died about this period, and was
probably interred at Dunfermline. (See An. Dunf. dates 1108-1120.)

RICHARD MONGAL, elected Prior in the place of Peter, the deceased Prior.
(Collier's Hist. Dict.; An. Dunf. date 1150.)

1136. - INVERESK CHURCH, bequeathed by David I. to the Abbey, the gift not
to take effect until after the death of Nicholas the priest. (Print.
Regist. de Dunf. p. 17, cart.No.30.) This priest is not heard of after
1136.

ROYAL GIFT - CRAIGMILLAR. - King David I., about this period, gave to the
Abbey of Dunfermline, in free and perpetual gift, a carrucate of arable
land and some houses at Craigmillar. (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.ii.)

1139. - INVERKEITHING CHURCH BEQUEATHED TO THE ABBEY. - This church,
dedicated to St. Peter, was this year bequeathed to Dunfermline Abbey by
Waldeve, the son of Gospatric (a Northumberland baron).  In the Registrum
de Dunfermlyn, there is, at p.94, cast. 165, a deed conveying the gift
under the following brief title:- "Waldenus filius Gospatricij de ecca de
Inuirkethi" - i.e., Waldeve, the son of Gospatric, in regard to the Church
of Inverkeithing.  The charter informs us that Waldeve gave the Church of
Inverkeithing to Dunfermline Abbey "for the love of God and Saint Margaret,
that the Lord Jesus Christ, by the intercession of that Holy Queen, and by
the prayers there offered up, may have compassion on our souls."  Fourteen
witnesses attest this charter.  This gift was confirmed to the Abbey by a
Bull from Pope Lucius III. in 1184 (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.156),
Archibald being Abbot of Dunfermline.

1140. - COUSLAND CHURCH ( in East Lothian). - The patronage of it is
granted to the Abbey.

1142. - BONDMEN, OR CUMBERLACHI. - David I., about this period, bequeathed
to Dunfermline Abbey his servi - Ragewin, Gillepatric, and Ulchell - "for
ever to the Church of the Holy Trinity, as my own men". (Print. Regist. de
Dunf. p.13, No,19; Dal. Mon. Antiq. p.41.)

1144. - ROYAL GIFT OF GOLD TO THE ABBEY. - About this period David I.
bequeaths, by charter-right, to the Abbey the tenth of all his gold
obtained in Fife and Fothriff. (Title of Charter, or Writ, "De Decima
Auri.") Translation of the short Charter:- "David, King of Scots, to all
honest men, Greeting, - Be it known to you that I have conceded, as a free
gift, to the Church of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline, the tenth part of the
whole of my gold obtained in Fife and Fothrif. T. Chancellor, HUGH DE
MOREVILL; JOHN, Episcopus. - Given at Elbothel." (Print. Regist. de Dunf.
p. 16, cart.28.)

1146. - THE CHURCH OF ECCLES. - About this period "an Assembly was held in
the Castrum Puellarum" (Edinburgh Castle), "where a compact was made
regarding the Church of Eccles, between the Bishop of St. Andrews and the
Abbot of Dunfermline, 'coram rege David et Henrico filio ejus et baronibus
eorum.'" (Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, vol.i.p.56, Ap.)

1148. - RICHARD MONGAL, Prior of Dunfermline, died about the end of this
year at San Iago de Compostella, in Spain, where he had gone on a
pilgrimage.  This prior was the author of a small work, titled "The Lives
of St. Bernard and Abelard," and is therefore the first Dunfermline author
whose name is on record.  Fordun speaks of him in high commendation, and
styles him "Richard Mongal, Prior Claustralis de Dunfermelyn." (Collier's
Hist. Dict.; Chalmer's Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.501.)

1149. - "ROGER," a monk of the Abbey, elected Prior in the place of Richard
Mongal, deceased.  David in his great Confirmation Charter alludes to
"Roger, the presbyter;" probably the same Roger.

1150. - ROMISH CONSECRATION OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - In the Chronicle of
Holyrood, under this date, there is the following incidental entry, viz: -

"MCL dedicata est Ecclesia de Dunfermelyn" - i.e., The Church of
Dunfermline was dedicated in 1150. (Vide "Chronicon Coenobii Sanctae Crucus
Edinburgensis.")

There is no other entry bearing this out in any other of the old Abbey
chronicles, chartularies, or memoranda of Scotland, which, to say the least
of it, is rather singular.

It is well known authenticated fact, that this church was founded, partly
built, and dedicated to "the Holy and Undivided Trinity," by Malcolm III.
and Margaret his consort, the Queen, circa A.D. 1074.  David I., in his two
Confirmation Charters, refers to this dedication, which see under dates
1127 and 1130.  In early writings the words, "dedicatio" and "consecratio,"
were often used as interchangeable or equivalent terms; and had the scribe
of Holyrood known that the Church at Dunfermline had, by Malcolm III., been
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, he would undoubtedly have used the word
"consecration" instead of "dedication."

It would appear that it was not until about the year 1150 that the Romish
worshippers in the Abbey superseded the original service; and thus after
becoming masters of the situation, the Abbot and monks would, by an
imposing ceremony, according to the rites of Romish worshippers, consecrate
the fabric of the Church, and also consecrate the dedication.  The oblong
stone, placed under the arch of the north-west Norman door of the Church
(within the porch) by the late Rev. Dr. Chalmers, should have had
"consecrata" instead of "dedicata, " thus -

ECCLESIA SANCTE TRINITATIS
DE DUNFERMLYN.
CONSECRATA ANNO MCL.
(Vide Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. ii. pp.162-166; vide Appendix E.)

1151. - ABBEY SEAL. - The following engraving represents the obverse side
of what has hitherto been taken for the oldest Abbey Seal, taken from a
much defaced impression, in brown wax, attached to a deed, by the Abbot (R)
of Dunfermline, in the archives of Durham Cathedral.

There is evidence to show that this Abbot, R, was Abbot Robert de Berewick, who
was in office from 1198 till 1202, and therefore the age of this seal has been assigned
to this period; but the fact of its being found attached to a deed of this
period does not infer that it had no previous exestence.  After the Abbey
became thoroughly Romanized, circa 1150, a seal would be a necessary
instrument for giving legality to deeds, writs, and other documents  We are
inclined therefore to place the origin of this seal under date 1151, as the
most likely year it was made and granted.  On this, the most ancient seal of
the Abbey, there is a representation of a Baptismal Font, enclosed within a
Norman-arched canopy, with side columns, and round the circumference is the
legend, "SIGILLVM SANCTE TRINITATIS" - i.e., "Seal of the Holy Trinity."

1152. - ROYAL GIFT TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - Ada, Countess of Northumberland
(wife of Earl Henry, son of David I.) gave about this period, "a full toft,
in Haddinton-schyre, to the Lord, the blessed Mary, and the Church of
Dunfermline, for ever, freely and quietly, for the safety of my Lord, Earl
Henry, for the safety of my own soul and all my predecessors, deceased, and
to all the faithful servants of God." (Print. Regist. Dunf. No.152,p.88.)

1153. - DAVID I. INTERRED AT DUNFERMLINE. - David I., the King, the sixth
and youngest son of Malcolm III. and Margaret his consort, died in the
Castle of Carlisle, on 27th May, in the 30th year of his reign, and about
the 76th year of his age, and "was buried at Dunfermline honourably, in the
day of St. Mark the Evangelist, near his father (Malcolm), before the Great
Altar" - (Fordun, v. 40) - "in the pavement of the middle choir." (Fordun,
viii.7.) David was "found dead in a posture of devotion." (Hailes's An.
Scot. vol i.p.93.)  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts refers to the
occurrence as follows:-

"David filius Malcolmi xxix. annis et tribus mensibus regnavit, et mortuus
in Karleil et Sepultus in Dunfermlin" - i.e. "David, the son of Malcolm,
reigned twenty-nine years and three months, and he died at Carlisle, and
was buried at dunfermline."

"David, soun freir regna xxix. aunz et iij. moys, et morust a Cardoil, et
gist a dunfermelin" - i.e., David, his brother (viz., Alesander I.),
reigned twenty-nine years and three months, and died at Carlisle, and lies
at Dunfermlyn.
(Vide Skene's Chronicles of Scots and Picts.)

Winton rhymes the event thus -

"The nynd Kalend, that day of June
The guid Kyng Daiiiys dayes ware dwne,
Intil Karlele, quhare he made
A Styth castell, and thare he hade
Oft and mekyl hys dwellyng
All the tyme that he wes Kyng,
And fra Karlele thai browcht syne
Hys Body dede til Dwnfermlyn:
Thare in halowyed Sepulture
It wes enteryed wyth honowre."

(Wynton's Orygynale Cronykil, vol. i. p.306.)

(Vide Aldred, apud For. v.59; Hailes's An. Scot. vol.i.p.93; Aber. Mart.
Ach. : Lardner's Cab. Cycl. Chron. p.337; also App. An. Dunf.)

John, the Prior of Hexham, relates that, when those who had the charge of
conveying the King's body from Carlisle to Dunfermline to the place of
sepulture, on arriving on the shores of the Firth of Forth, at Queensferry,
"they found the sea in so boisterous and agitated a state, that they were
afraid to venture upon it; but no sooner had they placed the royal corpse
in the boat, than the storm abated, so that they reached the opposite shore
without difficulty;" and that, after the King's body was safely landed on
the north shore, "the tempest began again with redoubled fury." (Decem.
Scriptores Col. 282; Morton's Monastic Annals of Teviot,p.81.)

ST. DAVID. - It appears not to be known when King David was canonized.  If
it did not take place shortly before his death, it may be supposed that
such a pious King as David was, would not be kept long out of "the
catalogue of the saints," and we have therefore inserted the occurrence in
this place.  Dr. Lardner, in his Cabinet Cyclopaedia article, "Alphabetical
Calendar of Saints' Days," p.134, hives it thus :

"DAVID, King (Saint Day), Dec.29,"

which has been extracted from MS. Vespasian A ix.

ROYAL GIFTS BY MALCOLM IV. TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - Malcolm IV., on the day
of the interment of his grandfather, David I., bequeathed to the Abbey the
lands of Ledmacduuegil, near Dunfermline; and also 23 acres of arable
ground. ("Confirmation Charter of Malcolm IV." Regist. de Dunf. p.21.)

CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF MALCOLM IV. - CARTA, NO.35: "Confirmacio Malcolmi
Regis." - This is the first of Malcolm IV.'s charters to the Abbey of
Dunfermline.  He granted fifteen charters to the Abbey.  This one is a
Confirmation Charter, granted shorly after he had ascended the throne.  It
occupies three-and-a-half quarto pages of "Registrum de Dunfermlyn," and,
like the other Confirmation Charters, confirms the gifts of his
predecessors, &c., as also those bequeathed by himself. (Print. Regist. de
Dunf. pp.19-22.)

1154. - GAUFRID, first Abbot of Dunfermline, died in October, 1154, in the
30th year of his abbotship, and about the 70th year of his age.  His name
in charters is variously spelt, as Galfridus, Galfrid, Gosfrid, and
Geoffrey, but Gaufrid appears the most common spelling.  He was a very
learned man for the age, and "a man of singular piety." Although the fact
is not on record, he would most probably be interred within the precincts
of Dunfermline Abbey. (Chron. S. Crucis, p.32; Fordun-a-Goodall,
vol.i.p.443; Dart's History of Canterbury.)

GAUFRID II. elected and consecreated the second Abbot.  He was nephew of
Gaufrid I., and appears to have been elected and consecreated Abbot of
Dunfermline in November, 1154.

SUNDRY DONATIONS TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - About this period a great many of
the nobles of Scotland, and also others who were possessed of land, tofts,
houses, &c., "conveyed much of their inheritances in free gifts for ever to
the Abbot and conventual brethren serving God in the Abbey Church of the
Holy Trinity of Dunfermline."
(Vide Register of Dunfermline, and old Charters.)

1155. - HEADS OF CRESPEIS BEQUEATHED TO THE ABBEY. - Charter No. 37 of the
Register of Dunfermline, entitled "De capitibus piscium quos vocant
Crespeis," is a curious one.  The following is a free translation of it:-

"Relative to the Heads of Fishes called Crespeis.

"Malcolm, King of the Scots, to all good men of his whole land, clerical
and lay, French and English and Scotch, health, - Know ye that I have given
and granted to the Abbot of Dunfermline, and to the monks serving God
there, in perpetual alms, for the salvation of the soul of my predecessor,
King David, the heads of the fishes which are called Crespeis (except the
tongue), which may be stranded in my lordship on that part of Scotwater,
situated within the bounds of their Church.  Witnesses - ANDREW, the Bishop
(of Caithness); DUNCAN, the Earl; HUGH DE MOREVILLE; WALTER, the son of
Alan; HERBERT, the Chamberlain; NICHOLAS, the Clerk; ALWYN MACARKIL, at
Perth."

NOTE. - These Crespeis are supposed to be a species of small whales, or
"bottle-noses", "Scotwater," the name of the Firth of Forth, at this
period, and the part of it alluded to, would likely embrace in extent the
space of shore-water lying between Limekilns and North Queensferry.  The
tongue appears to have been a tit-bit. (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.ii.p.112.)

1158. - CONFIRMATION OF NEWTON CHURCH TO THE ABBEY. - By this charter the
Church of Newton appears to have been the property of Elwinus Renner and
Eda, his wife.  They handed it over to Malcolm IV., to be by him gifted and
confirmed to the Abbey of Dunfermline.  Newton is near Dalkeith. (Print.
Regist. de Dunf. p.25, carta 44; dated from Dunfermline.)

PROTECTION CHARTER DE CONNEUTH. - Malcolm Iv., in this charter, unites with
Earl Duncan; Marleswain; Hugo, the son of Gillemichael; G. Mac-sloclac;
Neis, the son of William; and Alum. (Regist. de Dunf. No.45.)

MALCOLM IV., in a short charter of this date, "claims the protection of the
Abbey of Dunfermline, where the body of his grandfather, King David, rests
in God." (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.25; Dal. Mon. An. p.51 - printed at
Edinburgh.)

THE CHAPEL OF INVERKEITHING BEQUEATHED TO THE ABBEY BY MALCOLM IV. - This
charter was granted by Malcolm IV. at Dunfermline, by which he conceded and
confirmed to the Church of the Holy Trinity (or Abbey of Dunfermline), and
to the Abbot and monks serving God there, in free and perpetual gift, the
"cappella de Inuirkethin," along with two tofts, near or adjacent to the
chapel. (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.26, carta 46.) Granted at Dunfemline.

1157. - ABERCROMBIE CHURCH, about this period, was freely gifted to
Dunfermline Abbey by Malcolm IV.  Abercrombie was once a distinct parish;
it was in later times united to the Parish of Torryburn. (Print. Regist.
Dunf. p.24.)

1159. - INVERKEITHING CHAPEL AND TWO "TOFTS" BEQUEATHED TO DUNFERMLINE
ABBEY. - Malcolm IV., by charter, have the Chapel of Inverkeithing, along
with two tofts to the Abbey, to be held in free and quiet possession.
Granted at Dunfermline.  There are three bishops and four other witnesses
to this charter. (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.26, carta 46, under title of
"De Capells de Inuirketh et de duobus toftis.")  One of these tofts is in
the town, the other near the chapel.

ROYAL GIFT OF DUNKELD CHURCH TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - Malcolm IV., about
this period, gave the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunkeld (the Cathedral)
to the Abbey of Dunfermline, "as a free and perpetual gift, with the lands
and all other rights belonging to it, to be possessed by the Abbey after
the decease of Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, which gift is given for the
salvation of the souls of all his ancestors," &c., and was afterwards
frequently confirmed. (Print. Regist. de Dunf. No.36, p.22.) Andrew, the
Bishop, died in the year 1184. (See An. Dunf. date 1184.)

1160. - THE CHURCH OF "HUCHTERCALEDOUIR" BEQUEATHED AND CONFIRMED TO THE
ABBEY. - The Church of Upper Calder was gifted to Dunfermline Abbey as a
free and perpetual donation by Earl Duncan, and which, by this charter,
Malcolm IV. confirms. Done at Edinburgh. (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.26, carta
47.)

TOFT IN INVERKEITHING, granted by charter to Dunfermline Abbey about this
period, by Walter, the son of Alan. (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.93, No. 163.)

1162. - THE MONKS OF DUNFEMLINE ABBEY were prohibited from forsaking the
Abbey, "after their professions" of adherence to the Order, without the
Abbot's leave, unless they entered into a stricter order.(Dal.Mon. Antiq.
p.15; and Regist. Dunf.)

1163. - BULL FROM POPE ALEXANDER III. TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - It repeats
the names of all the gifts given to the Abbey to date; and this, his
Confirmation Charter 12, dated from "Turon, 7 June 1163," confirms all to
the Abbot and monks. (Print. Regist. de Dunf. pp. 151-153.)

1164. - PORTUS REGINAE - i.e., Queen's Port, or Ferry - is for the first
time noticed with tog nudas natione, in the Charter granted to Scone, in
1164, by Malcolm IV., when he gives the Abbot and monks of that place a
free passage at all times, ad prtum reginae. (See Liber Ecclesia de Scon;
and Chalmers' Hist. Dunf. vol.i.pp. 87,88, &c. ; An. Dunf. date 1182.)

SCOTWATER (FIRTH OF FORTH). - During "the Roman occupation," and for a
considerable time after that had ceased, the Firth of Forth appears to have
been known as "the Sea of Bodotria."  Afterwards, and down to about the
year 1100, it was known as Scotwater.  This latter name appears twice in
the Regist. de Dunf. at pp.22,23, and 420.  The name, "Scotwater" had
ceased to be used about A.D. 1100, and it is therefore singular that
Malcolm IV. in his charter, date 1164 - (Regist. Dunf.pp.22,23) - should
have used it, seeing that his predecessors had never done so.

THE DONATION OF THE CHURCH OF DUNKELD to Dunfermline Abbey by Malcolm IV.,
in 1159, was this year (1164) confirmed by Charter of Robert, the Bishop of
Dunkeld.  The following is a translation of this Confirmation Charter from
printed copy in Registrum de Dunfermlyn, p.22, by Cosmo Innes, Esq.,
Professor of History in the University of Edinburgh, 1842:-

"To all the Sons of Holy Mother Church: Richard, by the Grace of God,
Bishop of Dunkeld, Salutation and Episcopal Benediction, - Since it belongs
to our office to increase the respect of holy religion, let all as well
present as future know, that I have granted, and by this my Charter
confirmed, to the Abbot of Dunfermline, and the monks there serving God,
the donation of King Malcolm, and Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, as their
Charters testify, the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunkeld, and all the
land justly pertaining to it, free and quiet from every exaction, as well
of ecclesiastics as of seculars, saving episcopal rights.  I also grant to
them conversationem in my bishoprick, and that they may exercise the divine
office, and hold the cure of souls among their dependants; and that, while
converantes in my diocese, they shall receive from me those things which
pertain to Christianity. - Witnesses : MATTHEW, archdeacon of St. Andrews;
BRICIUS, prior of Inchcolm; MICHAEL, the clerk; Master MATTHEW, and JOHN,
his brother; ROBERT, cupbearer to the bishop; RADULFUS, the chaplain;
THOMAS, the presbyter; MURDOCH, the clerk; ABRAHAM LITTLE."

(Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.419; also Chalmers' History of Dunfermline,
vol.i.p.504.)

BULL OF ALEXANDER III. confirming the grant of Dunkeld to Dunfermline
Abbey; translated by Cosmo Innes, Professor of History in the University of
Edinburgh, 1842:-

"Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his beloved sons
Geoffrey, Abbot of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline, and his brethren,
salutation and apostolic benediction, - It becomes us to grant a ready
consent to the just desires of suppliants; and reasonable vows are to be
effectually performed.  Therefore, sons beloved in the Lord, we, heartily
assenting to your just requests, confirm, by our apostolic authority, to
you, and through you to your Church, the Church of the Holy Trinity of
Dunkeld, as reasonably granted to your Monastery by Andrew, Bishop of
Caithness, with the consent of the illustrious King of Scots; together with
the towns belonging to the same Church, which we have judged proper to
mention by name : FORDOUN, dunmernic, BENDACHIM, CUPERMACCULIM, INCHE,
RUMM, CETHEC, Let it be unlawful, therefore, to any to infringe this our
confirmation, or oppose in any manner. Should any one presume to attempt
this, let him know that he will incur the indignation of Almighty God, and
of the blessed Peter and Paul, his apostles. - Given at Sens, 27
July"(1164).

(Vide Print. Regist. de Dunf. No. 236, p. 151; also Chal. Hist. Dunf.
vol.i.p.504.)  this is the first Bull from a Pope in Registrum de
Dunfermlyn, and is here given as a specimen of the tenor of the Bulls in
the Register.

POPE ALEXANDER III. between the years 1163 and 1165, granted two Bulls, or
Writs, to Dunfermline Abbey. (Vide Print. Regist. de Dunf. pp. 151-153.)

1165.- MALCOLM IV. INTERRED AT DUNFERMLINE. - Malcolm IV. died at Jedburgh,
December 9th, 1165, in the 24th year of his age and the 12th of his reign.
He was brought with the highest honour, by the most distinguished persons
of all ranks in the kingdom, to Dunfermline, and "interred in the middle
pavement of the Abbey, to the right of his grandfather, King David, before
the High Altar, the royal burial place." (Fordun viii. ii; Hailes' Annals
of Scotland, vol.i,p.109.)

The following are extracts from old authors, who refer to the death and
interment of Malcolm IV.:-

"Maucloun le fitz Henry count del Garuyaghe de Huntingdoun et de
Northunbreland qi fust le fitz Dauid le roy, regna xij. aunz et vi. moys et
xx. iours qi monest auaunt la pier a Jedworth et gist a Dunfermelin."

That is -

Malcolm, the son of Henry, Earl of Garuyaghe and Huntingdon and of
Northumberland, the son of David the late King, reigned 12 years, 6 months,
and 20 days; he died at Jedburgh, and lies at Dunfermline."
(Skene's Chron. Picts and Scots.)

"Malcolm filius Henrici filii Dauid, regnavit xij. annis et six mensibus et
xx. diebus et mortuus in Jedwed et Sepultus in Dunfermlin cum
predecessoribus regibus."

That is -

Malcolm, the son of Henry, the son of David, reigned 12 years and 6 months,
and 20 days; and died in Jedburgh, and was interred with his predecessors,
the Kings, at Dunfermline.

Winton, in alluding to the occurrence, says -

"A thowsand a hundyr Sixty and fyve
Yheris of Grace, owt of his lyve
Malcolm oure Kyng past wyth honoure,
In Gedwood, till hys Creature
Of Decembyre the nynd day,
Efter the Conceptyown ay
Of oure Lady the Vergyne clere;
Fra thire hys body was browcht syne,
And entyr'd in Dwmfermly."

(Wynton's Orygynale Cronykil Scot. vol.i.p.318.)

(Vide also Chron. Melrose, p.169; Hailes' An. Scot. maj. vol.i.p.109;
Fordun, 1.8; c.4, 10, 11; Abrid. Scots Chron. p.98.)

ROYAL DONATION OF 100 SHILLINGS TO THE ABBEY. - King William (the Lion), on
the day of his brother's demise, gave to the Abbey, as a free and perpetual
gift, 100 shillings out of the revenue of the burgh of Edinburgh, and 20
acres of land, and a toft of land in Dunfermline.  (Print. Regist. de
Dunf.; Confirm. Charters; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.ii.p.231.)

WALTER FITZALAN'S GIFT TO THE ABBEY. - "Walter, the son of Alan, the King's
Steward, gave to the Abbey on the day that King Malcolm was buried there, a
gift of 20 acres and a toft, for the weal of the soul of King Malcolm IV.
and his ancestors; and also for the souls of his own father and mother and
his ancestors, and for his own soul in free Alms, reserving a lodging for
himself and his heirs." Confirmed by William the Lion. - (Regist. de Dunf.
No. 161, p.93; Dalyell's Monas. Ant. p.51.)

1166. - CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF KING WILLIAM. - Shortly after his ascension
to the throne this year, King William granted a Confirmation Charter to the
Abbey, confirming the gifts and privileges bestowed by his predecessors,
and his own.  This charter is entitled "Confirmacio Willmi Regis," and
occupies pp.28,29,30, of the printed Registrum de Dunf.

1168. - A TOFT IN INVERKEITHING was given to Dunfermline Abbey about this
period by Walter, the son of Alan, as a free and perpetual eleemosynary
gift, &c. (Print. Regis. Dunf. pp. 93,94, No.163.)

1171. - BALCHRISTIE. - The dispute between the monks of Dunfermline and the
canons of St. Andrews, respecting their respective rights to Balchristie,
was settled this year, the King (William) deciding that the lands should
belong to the monks of Dunfermline, and the pension out of them, excepted
by King David to be paid to the canons of St. Andrews. (Print. Regist.
Dunf. p.34, No. 59; and p.5, No.3.)

1173. - THE SCHOOLS OF PERTH AND STIRLING, under the Superintendence of
Dunfermline Abbey. - As early as this period there were Scolis in Perth and
Stirling wherein youthful candidates for ecclesiastical preferment were
instructed in grammar and logic, of which the abbot and monks of
Dunfermline were the directors. (Carta de Paisley, p.284; Caledonia,
vol.i.p.767; Sir J. Stewart's Coll. in Adv. Lib. No. 45; Tytler's Hist.
Scot. vol.ii.p.353; Carta de Kelso, pp.253-258; Regist. de Dunf.
vol.i.p.242.)

1174. - ROYAL DONATION OF A BONDMAN AND HIS CHILDREN TO THE ABBEY OF
DUNFERMLINE. - King William, by a Charter, titled "De Servis," bequeaths
for ever, as a free eleemosynary gift to the Abbey, Gillandrean Mac Suthen
and his children. (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.36, No.64; Dal. Mon. Ant.
pp.40,41.)

1176. - GILLEBRIDUS, Sherriff of Dunfermline. - According to the "Register
of the Priory of St. Andrews," Gillebridus was vice-comes, or Sheriff of
Dunfermline, as early as this year. (Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti
Andree, p.216; also, Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.582, &c.)  Perhaps this
Gillibridus acted as chief magistrate of Dunfermline at this period.  The
Sheriff (or Schireeve) appears to have been succeeded by the title
Alderman, and afterwards by Provost - by Provost before 1450. (See also
date 1395.)

1178. - GAUFRID II., Abbot of Dunfermline, died this year.  He was Abbot 24
years. His name appears as a witness in several Charters in Registrum de
Dunfermline, as also in Charters in other Abbeys, &c.  Probably he was
interred at Dunfermline. (Chal. Hist. denf. vol.i.p.180; vol.ii.p.218.)

ARCHIBALD, elected and consecreated Abbot of Dunfermline as successor to
Gaufrid II.(the third Abbot).  His name is written in some Abbey Charters
Erkenbald, Erkenbaldus, Archembaldus, and sometimes with the initial A. or
E. only.  He is several times noticed in the chartulary of Kelso Abbey.
(See date 1198; also, Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.181; vol.ii.p.313.)

1179. - TITHES OF THE MALT OF FITKILL (Lesslie). - King William in a
Charter declares that xxiii.s.iiij.d. was the sum that the monks of
Dunfermline were wont to draw from his lands of Fitkill. (Print. Regist.
Dunf. p.35.)

CHURCH OF MELVILLE BEQUEATHED TO THE ABBEY: A Perpetual Light before the
Tombs of Kings David and Malcolm. - Gaefrid de Malcum (Melville), after (in
his Charter) saluting "all good men, present and future," gives and
confirms to the Church of Christ at Dunfermline and Monastery of the same,
the Church of Melville, as a perpetual and free alms "for the souls of
David the King and Malcolm IV., and for his ancestors and successors;" at
same time, he stipulates that, for this charitable gift, "a perpetual light
must be kept burning before the tomb of the said Kings." Coram Sepultura.
(Print. Regist. Dunff. pp.91,92.)

1180. - THE CHURCH OF MOULIN GIFTED TO THE ABBEY. - The Church of Moulin,
in Perthshire, was bequeathed to Dunfermline Abbey by Malcolm (the second),
Earl of Athole.  The Charter of Conveyance is in Print. Regist. de Dunf.
p.85, and is titled "Malcolmus Comes Atholie : De Ecclia de Molin."  The
date is not known with accuracy, but A.D. 1180 appears to be the probable
date.  The Earl and his Countess appoint Dunfermline Abbey to be the place
of their sepulture.

THE CHURCH OF STRATHARDOLF. - In an undated Charter of about this date,
King William gives to the Abbey of Dunfermline the Church of Strathardolf,
or Strathardol, in the north-east part of Perthshire, "as a perpetual free
gift, to be held in quiet and honourable possession." (Regist. de Dunf.
p.39; Carta 73; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.230,&c.)

1182. - POPE LUCIUS III., between the years 1182 and 1183, granted two
Bulls or Writs to Dunfermline Abbey.  (Vide Print. Regist. Dunf.
pp.153-158.)

QUEEN'S FERRY. - The old name of "Ardehinnechenam" began to be disused in
1164, and that of Passagium S. Margaritae Reginae (Passage of the Holy
Margaret the Queen) substituted.  This new name for "Queen's Ferry" again
appears in a Confirmation Bull or Charter of Lucius III. to the Abbey, and
is dated 14th Nov. M.C.LXXX.IIIJ.(1184), and occasionally it re-appears in
this its Latin designation in other Charters on the Register down to a late
period.  The Seal of the burgh of South Queensferry is an oval one, in the
centre of which is St. Margaret standing in a skiff or boat; crown on head;
rod of office in her right hand; the boat has a small flag at stern; the
legend between ornamental border lines round the circumference reads -
INSIGNIA 'PASAGI' REGINAE.  South Queensferry became a royal burgh in 1636,
and perhaps this is the date of this Seal.

1184. - ANDREW, Bishop of Caithness, (formerly Culdean Abbot of Dunkeld) -
died at Dunfermline 30th December, (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.493.)

DUNKELD (Cathedral) CHURCH - in consequence of the death of Andrew, Bishop
of Caithness, this year - becomes the unconditional legal property of
Dunfermline Abbey.

1185. - KING WILLIAM AND HIS DUNFERMLINE WORKMEN. - A Charter or Writ of
King William about this date notifies : "When I repaired my castles in
Ross, the men belonging to the Abbot and Monks of Dunfermline assisted, of
their own goodwill, at my request, along with other honest men of mine; but
it is my command that, having done this at my instance, it shall not be
construed into any precedent." (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.32,No.54.)

1187. - POPE URBAN III. this year granted a Bull or Writ to Dunfermline
Abbey, in which he decrees that any vacant churches must not be granted to
any one, but must be retained for their original purposes. (Vide Print.
Regist. Dunf. pp.158,159.)

1190. - LIGHTING THE CHURCH OF DUNFERMLINE. - Archibald, Abbot of
Dunfermline, about this period received an undated Charter from King
William in his favour, granting the right to receive annually from the
burgh of Haddington, "the sum of 3 marks - one-half at the Feast of St.
Martin, the other half at the Feast of the Pentecost - for lighting the
Church of Dunfermline." (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.31; Chal. Hist. Dunf.
vol.i.p.181.)

POPE CLEMENT III. this year granted four Bulls to Dunfermline Abbey. (Vide
Print. Regist. Dunf. pp.159-161.)

1195. - ROGER, Prior of Dunfermline, died about this period, and was
probably interred within Dunfermline Abbey.  He appears to have been Prior
for the long period of 46 years. (See An. of Dunf. date 1149.)

LAMBINUS, elected Prior of Dunfermline Abbey about this period, as
successor to Roger the Prior, exact date of death unknown, but between 1192
and 1198. (Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andre, p.353; also Chal.Hist.
Dunf. vol.i.p.582.)

1196. - MALCOLM, EARL OF ATHOLE, and his wife the Countess, died between the
years 1194 and 1198, and were interred in the Abbey in the place they had
selected.  These dates are found by a comparison of the dates of deaths of
witnesses affixed to his Charter in the Register of Dunfermline, p.85
No.147.

1198. - ARCHIBALD, the 3rd Abbot of Dunfermline, died. Not known were
interred. (Chron. Mel. p.103; Fordun, lib.153.)

ROBERT DE BERWICK, elected and consecreated Abbot of Dunfermline; successor
to Archibald, the last Abbot.  He is represented as being "a careless man."
(See his deposition in 1202.)  The 4th Abbot.

1199. - KEETH CHAPEL, CRICHTON. - This year it was ordained by Charter,
that the Chapel of Keeth should belong to the Chapel of Crichton for ever;
and that the Church of Crichton should pay to the Abbey of Dunfermline one
mark of silver annually at the Feast of the blessed Martin. (Print. Regist.
Dunf. pp.68-69, No.113: Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.227.)

END OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY.

MCCI
(BEGINNING OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY.)

ANNALS OF DUNFERMLINE. - (CONTINUED.)

1201. - The 13th century opens on Dunfermline with Robert as Abbot (but
with murmurs of discontent), Lambinus as Prior; and connected with the
Abbey there are 26 monks and 12 officials.  An enlargement of the Abbey is
under consideration.  King William, and his consort, Queen Ermingarde, and
the royal children, occasionally reside in the Tower.

1202. - ROBERT, Abbot of Dunfermline, deposed for "irregularities" by the
Cardinal Legate, John de Salerno, at a general court he held at Perth in
1202. (Chalmers' Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.182.)

PATRICK, Sub-Prior of Durham, elected and consecrated Abbot of
Dunfermline, in place of Abbot Robert.  Patrick, previous to this period,
had been Sub-Prior of Durham, and Dean and Prior of Canterbury.  He was the
fifth Abbot.

1203. - CRAMOND. - Six acres of land bequeathed to Dunfermline Abbey.
Alicia, grand-daughter of one Ranulph, made a free grant of six acres of
land at Karamund to the Abbey of Dunfermline.  Patrick, the Abbot, is one
of the numerous witnesses to her Charter. (Print. Regist. de Dunf.
pp.115,116.)

BISHOP MALVIOSINE AND HIS WINE ALLOWANCE. - William Malvoisan, Bishop of
St. Andrews, during an official visit to Dunfermline about this period,
deprived the Abbey of its presentations to the Churches of Hailes and
Kinglassie, because the Abbot and monks had neglected to provide for him
wine enough for his collation after supper.  The Abbot and monks declared
that they had provided a sufficient quantity of wine, but that the Bishop's
attendants had improvidently consumed it. (Fordun, lib. vi.41; Hailes's An.
Scot. vol.i.p.300; Heron's Hist. of Scot. vol.i.p.432,&c., &c.)

SEAL OF PATRICK, ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE. - The above is a fac-simile of the
wax impression of the Abbot of Dunfermline's Seal to a Melrose Charter of
this date.  This Seal, an oval one, is slightly defaced.  The interior part
represents a religieux seated, reading a Bible, it is presumed, which lies
open on a table-desk before him.  Within lines round the circumference is
the following legend in old Saxon letters:-
"!SIGILL-PATRICII-ABBATIS-DE-DVNFERMELIN" - that is, Seal of Patrick, Abbot
of Dunfermline.

1207. - BULL FROM POPE INNICENT III. to Abbot Patrick of Dunfermline,
confirms to the Abbacy all its previous possessions, &c., as given in the
second Bull of Pope Lucius III. (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.161.; Chal.
Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.182.)

1208. - CLEISH CHAPEL was about this period granted to the Abbey of
Dunfermline by Malcolm, 7th Earl of Fife.  (Print. Regist. de dunf. p.83;
also pp.46, 108, 125, 207, 383, for Cles, Cleth, and Cleische.)

1210. - ABERCROMBIE CHURCH. - Malcolm, 7th Earl of Fife, gave the Church of
Abercrombie, with the teinds of Quichts, &c., to the Abbey of Dunfermline
as a free gift for ever, for his own soul, and "for the souls of his father
and mother, and of his successors." (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.83.)

1212. - ERMINGARDE, Queen of Scotland, is a witness to the Charter of
Philip de Mubray, and Galiena his wife, relative to the Church of
Inverkeithing, and to which the Queen affixed her seal. (Print. Regist. de
Dunf. p.25, No.166, &c.; Dal. Mon. Antiq. p.12.)

1215. - CONTROVERSY between the Abbeys of Dunfermline and Cambuskenneth,
respecting the Chapel of Dunipace, was this year amicably settled. (Print.
Regist. de Dunf. pp.128-130.)

THE TITHE OF POLMASE. - The tithe of the corn of Polmase is made payable to
the Abbey, by the specific measure of a chalder of oatmeal. (Print. Regis.
de Dunf.; Dal. Mon. Antiq. p.32.)

1216. - POPE INNOCENT III., between the years 1206 and 1216, granted eleven
Bulls, or Writs to Dunfermline Abbey. (Vide printed Regist. Dunf.
pp.161-166.)

THE EXTENSION OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY commenced about this period.  The Abbey,
or rather Church, founded by Malcolm and Margaret about the year A.D.1072,
had long previous to 1216 been found unsuited for the "pomp and parade of
Romish worship."  It was resolved that the Abbey should at once be
extended, and a new building united to the walls of the original Abbey on
the east that it should be a great Cross Church, with transepts, choir,
lantern tower, presbytery, lady chapel, chapter-house, and other necessary
offices.  According to this resolution the extension of the Abbey was begun
and, it would appear, a slight extension of Monastery on the south, for a
contemplated increase in the number of monks from 30 to 50, and also for
suitable accommodation for receiving strangers, visitor, &c.  The
ground-plan on next page is from a large one, done in 1790, by the late
Rev. Mr. Syme.

It may be noted that historians and others have too frequently treated the
names "Abbey" and "Monastery" as if both names referred to one object, as
if they were interchangeable.  They are not so. "Abbey", is the holy place,
the place wherein the rites and the forms of worship were conducted; and
"Monastery" is the place wherein the monks who conduct the worship reside -
where they take their meals, sleep, and perform any secular duties.

1222. - LAND AT CRAIGMILLAR GIVEN TO THE ABBEY. - William, the son of
"Henricus de Cragmilor," gave in pure and perpetual gift or alms, a toft of
land at Cragmilor to the Abbey of Dunfermline. (Vide Haddington
Collections; Mackie's Scot. Palaces, pp.207-208.)

1223. - PATRICK, 5th Abbot of Dunfermline died - "15th Kal. Oct. obiit
Patricius Abbas de Dunfermelin." (Dart's Cant. Obituary.)

WILLIAM (I.) elected and consecrated Abbot of Dunfermline, as successor to
Abbot Patrick.  He was the 6th Abbot, and died, after holding the abbotship
for about seven months only.

WILLIAM (II.) elected and consecrated Abbot of Dunfermline, as successor to
Abbot William I.

DUNFERMLINE ABBEY TITHES, &C. - About this period the Registrum de
Dunfermlyn had notices of "tithes of mill multures and sequels" being
levied by the Abbey; and about the same time a question had arisen about
tithing fishes. (Print. Regist. Dunf.; Dal. Mon. Antiq. p.33.)

1226. - THE NEW LARGE EASTERN CHURCH, OR CHOIR, begun circa 1216, appears
to have been completed this year - "a noble structure," perhaps unequalled
in Scotland; but the great expenses attending its erection during the past
ten years had very much impoverished the Abbey.  The Abbot applied to the
Pope for relief, soliciting the patronage and presentation to vacant
churches.

BULL OF HONORIUS III., regarding the foregoing, refers to the augmentation
of the Monastery and the noble structure of the extended fabric, &c.  This
allusion shows that the "noble structure" had just then been completed,
viz., 1226, for this Bull or Writ is dated in the tenth year of his
pontificate.  This Pope in his Bull goes on to say, in order sufficiently
to sustain the honour and the hospitality of the Abbey, he conceded and
confirmed to the Abbot, &c., the vicarages of the Churches of Hailes and
Kinglassie, &c.; dated at "Reat, 1 January, Pontif. anno x" - that is, A.D.
1226. (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.167, No.257; see also Regist. de Dunf.
No.130: and An. of Dunf. date 1231.)

POPE HONORIUS III., between the years 1225 and 1227, granted four Bulls, or
Writs, to Dunfermline Abbey. (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp.166-168.)

VIEW OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY WITH THE NEW CHOIR. - There are, of course, no
views extant of Dunfermline Abbey at so early a period - nor, indeed, are
there any for some hundreds of years after this period; but still, from the
old prints and sketches in the writer's possession, some showing a portion
of the north wall of the new choir of 1228, the fragment of the lantern
tower as it stood in 1705, which along with the known architecture of the
north wall of the "Auld Kirk"(the original Abbey), a pretty correct idea
can be formed of the "noble structure" when it stood completed in 1226.

The writer of the Annals has, from the sources just noted, drawn for the
engraver the accompanying composition view, which may be taken as a pretty
correct one of the new and old fabrics from an imaginary north-north-west
point of view - say, near the top of the Kirkgate, with all the intervening
houses between this site and the Abbey swept away.

"And sure on more majestic pile
Our northern sun did seldom smile!
Ascending from the vale below;
How nobly would it meet the eye,
When all its turrets seem'd to glow,
Midway in the morning sky!"

(Mercer's "Dunfermline Abbey: a Poem.")

CAPITULAR SEAL OF THE ABBEY. - The age of this fine Seal has not been
ascertained; probably it may date from the year 1226, when 'the Abbey was
enlarged by noble structures."  It would appear that a chapter-house was
then made for "chapter business."  The Seal is a matrix one of brass, and
is 2 and 3/4 inches in diameter (same size as in the preceding engraving,
which is a correct representation of the obverse side of the Seal).

It has been supposed that the design occupying the centre of the Seal is a
representation of the Monastery; we rather suppose that it represents the
coffer-box in which the relics of St. Margaret were kept, and which would
stand on her shrine.  There are many instances of coffer-boxes, or chests,
being "house-shaped."  If St. Margaret's coffer-box was not so shaped, then
it is probable that the representation on the Seal may have been carved on
the front panel of the coffer-box.  Mr Henry Laing, in his "Descriptive
Catalogue of Impressions from Ancient Scottish Seals, &c., Edinburgh,
1850," describes this part of the Seal as follows:- "This is a fine round
Seal, of an extremely interesting and curious design - perhaps intended to
represent the Monastery.  A section of the lower part is given, divided
into three arches, supported by spiral columns.  Beneath the first arch, on
the sinister side, is a priest at mass, attended by an acolyte.  In the
next, or centre arch, is a female figure, probably St. Margaret, holding an
open book in her hand, standing before lectern.  In the dexter arch is a
monk standing before a lectern, holding (or reading) a book.  Above the
roof of the building is a crescent, an estoile, and two birds."  Round the
circumference is the following legend in old characters:- "SIGILL CAPITL'I
ECCL'IE SCE'TRINITATIS DE DVNFERMELIN" - i.e., Seal of the Chapter of the
Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline.

The other half of this matrix Seal was long missing.  About the year 1847,
"it was accidentally discovered by the late Mr. Bell, of Gateshead, on the
top of a barrow-load of earth which a labourer was wheeling there."  On
next page is an accurate representation of the surface of this long lost
half of the Seal (the reverse side of it).  On the Reverse of the Chapter
Seal are the figures of four Angels supporting an Aureole, within which the
Saviour, with Cruciform Nimbus, is sitting on a Rainbow, his feet resting
on a lesser one, his right hand raised as if calling to judgment, his left
holding an open book.  At the dexter side is an Estoile of five points, and
above the sinister hand is a Crescent.  Below the Rainbow is a Quatrefoil
on the dexter, and Cinquefoil on the sinister side, surrounded by the
following inscription or legend:- "MORTISL'VITEBREVIS-VOXITEVENITE DICET
REPROBISITE VENITE PROBIS" - which may be rendered : "Mortis Et vite Brevis
Est vox; Ite Venite Dicet Reprobis Ite Venite Probis" i.e., "Brief is the
Voice of Life and Death Go, come, it will say to the Bad;go, come, to the
good". (Vide Laing's Descriptive Catalogue of Scottish Seals; Chal. Hist.
Dunf. vol.ii.p.217; Gordon's Monasticon, p.409.)

DUNFERMLINE AND CULROSS ABBEY. - The dispute between Abbot William of
Dunfermline, and Abbot Hugh of Culross, relative to payments due to the
former Abbey for the Church of Abercrombie, in the jurisdiction of the
latter Abbey, is this year amicably settled by these Abbots, the Abbey of
Culross agreeing to pay 15 marks of silver yearly to the exchequer of
Dunfermline Abbey. (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp.126,127.)

1227. - A FREE WARREN GRANTED TO THE MONKS. - Alexander II. granted to the
Monks of Dunfermline Abbey a free warren throughout their lands at
Musselburgh, and prohibited every one from hunting or trespassing within
the warren on the penalty of 10. (MS. Monastica Scotiae, vol.ii.p.724.)

1228. - A TOFT OF LAND in LEITH was, about this period, given to
Dunfermline Abbey, by Thomas de Lastalric (Restalrig, near Edinburgh).
Print. Regist. Dunf. p.106, No.188.)

A TOFT OF LAND in Haddington, given to Dunfemline Abbey by David de
Lyndeseya (Lindsey).  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.105, No.191.)

1229. - THE ABBEY OF DUNFERMLINE AND THE VICAR OF MUSSELBURGH. - In the
dispute between the Abbey and the Vicar of Musselburgh, the Bishop of St.
Andrews determines that the Vicar shall have all offerings and small tithes
belonging to his altarage, excepting the fishes of every sort, and the
tithes of mills belonging to the monks, for which the Vicar must pay to the
Abbey of Dunfermline 10 merks yearly. (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.69, No.114;
Dal. Mon. Antiq. p.31.)

1230. - CHARTULARY OF DUNFERMLINE, now called the "Register of
Dunfermline," appears to have been begun as early as this period.  The
Chartulary is and has been in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, for nearly
200 years.  It has modern binding, and is in good condition.  First Charter
by David I., 1128; last Charter by George Dury, Abbot of Dunfermline, in
1557. (See Appendix E.)

1231. - THE ABBEY ENLARGED by a "Noble Structure," and the number of Monks
increased from 30 to 50. - Under date 1226, notice is taken of the
enlargement of Dunfermline Abbey by the erection of a more noble building,
viz., the Choir.  This year, 1231, the newly erected noble structure is
again noticed, along with an increase of 20 monks.  The following is a free
translation of the Charter of 1231 referring to the new Choir and increase
of monks.  This Charter is titled "Confirmacio Gilberti Dunkeld Epi de
Ecclia de Molin":-

"My beloved son, the Abbot and Convent of Dunfermline have made known to me
that, in the aforesaid Monastery, which they have a new enlarged, not
without great expense and debt, with a fabric of a nobler structure,
specially for the improvement of the worship of God: and they have
increased the number of servitors(monks), so that when there used to be
thirty, fifty monks are now kept, their own means not sufficing for the
support of these, and for the reception of strangers, poor people, and
guests, they often undergo the burdens of debts; whence they have made
humble supplication, because in certain churches of your diocese they hold
the right of patronage, in order that the worship of God may not perish
altogether in the said Monastery from want of necessaries, or hospitality
be diminished, that we should assign to their special use a certain part of
the foresaid churches for this purpose.  Wherefore, &c. - Given at the
Lateran, July 6th, in the 4th year of our Pontificate"(1231).

The foregoing Writ, or Bull, is from Pope Gregory IX. to Gilbert, Bishop of
Dunkeld.  The Abbot and Convent had, it would appear, "made humble
supplication for the patronage of certain churches in Moulin, in the
diocese of the Bishop." (Vide Regist. de Dunf. No.130, pp.76,77.)  This is
the Writ or Bull Dalyell refers to in his Monastic Antiquities at P.15.  He
had evidently overlooked the Writ or Bull of 1226. (Regist. de Dunf.
No.257, p.167.)

1231. - ABBEY LAND, BOUNDARIES AT DUNDUFF. - In a deed of perambulation of
the lands belonging to the Abbey of Dunfermline, and those of David Durward
of Dunduff, dated 1231, done to determine their respective boundaries, the
names of the freemen who composed the jury, and of the native bondmen
residing on the disputed lands, who were the witnesses, are readily
distinguished from each other.  Among the names of the free men (who are
Celtic) are Gillecostentin, John Trodi, Riscolog, Gillandres, Seth mac
Lood, Gillepatric mac Machin (meaning servant of Constantine, of Thomas, of
Andrew, &c.).  John of Oberville, one of the freemen, was probably the
progenitor of William of Oberville, of Pittencrief, who, in 1291, granted
the Coal Charter to the Abbey. (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.iii; also Chal.
Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.218)

CLEISH. - Gilbert de Cles agreed to pay annually to the House of
Dunfermline (the Abbey) 10s. for land  between Cleish and the Forest of
Outh, according to a precept of King Alexander II. (Print. Regist. Dunf.
p.108,No.192.)

CREBARRIN LANDS. - Adam, the son of Patrick of Crebarrin, John of
Crebarrin, and Alanus de Faud, have Charters in the Register of Dunfermline
of this date regarding the rights to these lands, which they convey to the
Church of the Holy Trinity, and the monks there serving God, &c. (Print.
Regist. Dunf. pp. 102-106.)

1234. - THE CHURCH OF MELVILLE, granted to the Abbey in 1197, was this year
confirmed in its rights, by Pope Gregory IX., in his general Confirmation
Charter. (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 174-177.)

POPE GREGORY IX., between the years 1230 and 1234, granted 13 Bulls, or
Writs, to Dunfermline Abbey.  They chiefly relate to 13 Churches and
Chapels under the patronage of the Abbey. (Print. Regist. Dunf.
pp.168-177.)

THE TEINDS OF KINGLASSIE were, in 1234, "mortified by William, Bishop of
St. Andrews, Deo, S. Margarete, et monachis de Dunfermling."

KINGLASSIE AND CONSTANTINE LOCHOR'S RENOUNCEMENT. - This year Constantine
Lochor, with the consent of David, his son and heir, and Philip his
brother, renounced his claim to Kinglassie in favour of the Abbey of
Dunfermline. (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.101; Sibbald's Hist. Fife, p.374.)

1236. - DOLLAR FOREST GIVEN TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY BY ALEXANDER II.

"Alexander, by the grace of God, King of Scots, to all the good men of his
whole land, greeting, - Let them know that we have granted to the Abbot and
Convent of Dunfermline, that they hold their land of Dollar in free forest
for ever.  Therefore, we strictly forbid any one without their leave to cut
wood or hunt in the said land, upon our full forfeiture of ten pounds. -
Witnesses : WALTER, the son of Alan the Steward, Fusticiar of Scotland;
W.CUMIN, Earl of Menteth; WALTER OLIFARD, Fusticiar of Lothian. - Given at
Scone, 20th October, Anno Regni Dni Regis xxiii. 1236." (Print. Regist.
Dunf. pp.43,44.)

1237. - DOLLAR AND DUNFERMLINE. - The following is a translation of a short
Charter of Alexander II. relating to Dollar and Dunfermline :-

"Alexander, by the grace of God, King of Scots, to all the good men of his
whole land, greeting, - Be it known to all present and to come, that we, in
exchange for the alms which the Monks of Dunfermline used to receive in our
lordship at Kinghorn and Crail, as well of wheat, oatmeal, malt, corn and
straw, as in money, and likewise in exchange of all the dues they used to
receive in our kitchen and that of the Queen, our spouse, have given and
granted for charity, and by this our Charter have confirmed to God and the
Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline,and the Monks there serving God,
and perpetually to serve there, all our lands of Dollar, in the fief of
Clackmannan, to hold and to keep for the said Monks, in free and perpetual
alms, by the same right boundaries and rights by which our tenants held the
same land of us on the day of this grant, freely, quietly, fully, and
honourably, doing the lawful service which pertains to the same land of
Dollar. - Witnesses: PATRICK, Earl of Dunbar; WALTER, the son of Alan, the
Steward Fusticiar of Scotland; WALTER CUMIN, Earl of Menteth; WALTER
OLIFARD, Fusticiar of Lothian; ALAN DURWARD, WALTER BYSET, BERNARD FRASER.
- Given at Stirling, 27 December Anno Regni Dni Regis xxiiio" - viz., A.D.
1237. (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.43.)

THE VICARS OF PERTH AND DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - In a contrversy between the
Vicars of Perth and the Abbey of Dunfermline of long standing, the Bishop
of St. Andrews decided that, on payment of 50 merks to the Abbey, the
Vicars shall be responsible for the episcopal and all other burdens
incumbent on the Church of Perth; and to all offerings, and all other
things that may arise from fortuitous occasions and circumstances; and also
to the tithes of Lent, paid in money. (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp.64,65,
No.108.; Dal. Mon. Antiq. p.35.)

1238. - WILLIAM (II.), the Abbot of Dunfermline, died. (Chron. Melrose.
p.148.)

GAUFRID (III.), Prior of the Abbey, elected and consecrated Abbot of
Dunfermline, as successor to Abbot William (the 7th Abbot).

1240. - KIRKCALDY CHURCH. - This year, David, by Divine permission, Bishop
of St. Andrews, bestows the Church of Kirkcaldy on the Abbey, the Abbot and
brethren to provide Vicars, "qui onera ecclesiae sustinebunt, praeterquam
hospitium episcopi de quo dicti abbas et conventus respondebunt" - i.e.,
Who will bear the Church burdens, besides the entertainment of the Bishop,
as to which the said Abbey and Convent will be responsible. (print. Regist.
Dunf. p.116, No.117; Dl. Mon. Antiq. pp. 67,68.)

KINGHORN CHURCH. - David, by Divine permission, Bishop of St. Andrews, in
his charter of this date, confirms to Dunfermline Abbey its right to the
Church of Kinghorn, dated St. Andrews, 12th January, 1240. (Print. Regist.
Dunf. pp. 71,72, No.119.)

WYMET CHURCH. - David, the Bishop in the same Charter, confirms to the
Abbey, its  rights in the Church of Wymet. (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp.71,72,
No.119.)

GAUFRID (III.), Abbot of Dunfermline, died. (Chron. Melrose, p.148.)  He
appears to have been about two years and seven months in office, and is the
last of the name.

1241. - ROBERT OF KELDELETH, or Keldelecht, elected and consecrated Abbot
of Dunfermline, as successor of Abbot Gaufrid.  (This Robert is the 8th
Abbot.)

1243. - DUNFERMLINE ABBEY BECOMES A MITRED ABBEY. - By a Bull or Writ of
Pope Innocent IV., in the Register of Dunfermline, he confers on the Abbot
of Dunfermline the honour and privilege of wearing, or using the Mitre, the
Ring, and other pontifical ornaments - (de mitra et annulo et certis
episc.).  These other, no doubt, refer to the crosier, the shoes, &c.  This
Writ is addressed to "my sons, the Abbot and conventual brethren of
Dunfermline." (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.180, No.179.)

LORD ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE. - By virtue of the foregoing Writ of Pope
Innocent IV., the style or title of the Abbot is "Lord Abbot," and
continued so until the Reformation, in 1560, when "all Romish practices and
titles ceased."

CAPS, or BONNETS, may be used by the Monks of the Abbey. - Pope Innocent
IV., in a Writ, sent to the Abbot in the first year of his pontificate,
concedes to a request which the Abbot and Convent had solicited, viz., he
says, "that, on considering the frigid region" (cold climate) "where the
Abbey is situated, he consents to allow the monks the privilege of wearing
caps, or bonnets, suitable to monks of their Order; but they must not
forget to preserve due reverence at the elevation of the Host, at the
Eucharist, and other observances."  This Writ is titled "De pileis" - i.e.,
concerning the Caps, Hats, or Cowls.  The Writ is dated "Lyons, 7th May,"
in the first year of his pontificate, viz., 1243.  (Print. Regist. Dunf.
p.178, No.275; Dal. Mon. Antiq. pp.15,16.)  It would appear that their
caps, or cowls, were made of leather, as several fragments of "bowl-shaped
leather" were found amongst the mounds of rubbish which had for centuries
lain on the site of the Choir, during the levelling of the ground, in 1817,
for the present Abbey Church.

1245. - REGARDING THE MIRACLES AND CANONIZATION OF MARGARET, CONSORT OF
MALCOLM III. - In the "Register" of the Abbey there is a copy of a Bull, or
Writ, from Pope Innocent IV., regarding "the miracles of Margarite the
Queen."  It is addressed to the Bishop of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and
Dunblane, and is evidently the result of a letter which he had had from
King Alexander II., soliciting that the body of Margaret, of blessed
memory, should be enrolled in the catalogue of the saints, as her body had
shown infinite bright, light-flashing, coruscating miracles; but as the
King's letter to him (the Pope) had given no evidence of this, he directs
the above-named Bishops to make strict inquiry regarding the matter, and
commanding them to reduce what was proved to writing, attested by their
seals, and transmitted to him by a trusty messenger.  Dated at "Lugd. 5
Aug." 2nd year of the pontificate, 1244. (Print. Regist. Dunf.
p.181,No.281.)

"THE PRIVILEGES" OF EXCOMMUNICATION granted to the Abbey by Pope Innocent
IV.  The following is a translation of the Charter conveying "the
privilege":-

"Innocent, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his beloved sons, the
abbot and convent of the monastery of Dunfermline, of the Order of St.
Benedict, of the diocese of St. Andrews, salutation and apostolic
benediction, - Since, as has been intimated to us on your part, certain
ecclesiastical judges, after binding with the chain of excommunication some
who are disobedient unto them, presume to fulminate their sentences of
excommunication against those participating with such excommunicated
persons - not only in their crime, but even in any respect - We, having
given heed to your devout prayers, by authority of these presents, Grant
you an indulgence, if at any time you or your servants happen to hold
intercourse with such excommunicated persons, that ye shall on no account
be bound with the cord of the greater excommunication, provided ye be not
partakers with the guilty in their crime.  Let it be lawful for none to
infringe upon this our indulgence, or to oppose it by a daring rashness.
If any one presume to attempt this , let him know th at he shall incur the
indignation of Almighty God, and of the blessed Peter and Paul, his
apostles. - Given at Lyons, 5th calend.May" (28th April), "and 2nd year of
our pontificate." (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.599; Register,
pp.142,170,179,262,420; also Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol.i.p.505; and at dates
1316 and 1342, Annals of Dunf., &c.)
 
 
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