Shortly afterwards, however, he was in Dunfermline again, probably to
escape from the English spies, whom he would find in abundance in the
Lothians. This time he made "the forest of Dunfermline his hiding-place."
At this period the glen of Pittencrieff was an almost impenetrable forest,
extending from the low grounds on the south to Balrig Burn (Baldredge Burn)
on the north. There were also other forests of a lesser degree, such as
Fothrich Moor or forest, &c., but the forest of Dunfermline would most
likely be in the former locality, and St. Margaret's Cave (the Cave Well)
may have been his place of shelter. In the forest of Dunfermline the
renowned Wallace appears to have had conferences with his friends as to the
propriety of delivering himself up to Edward of England on honourable
terms. When these were made known to Edward, he got "infuriated," cursed
him by the "well-known fiend," denounced him as "a traitor," and set a
price of 300 merks on his head. On hearing this, the great patriot fled
from the forest of Dunfermline to the mountain wilds, subsisting on the
bounty of his friends. Langtoft, referring to this event, says:-
"Turn we now other weyes unto ower geste,
And speke of the Waleys that lies in the foreste;
In the foreste he-landes of Daunfermelyn,
He praied all his frendes and other of his kyn
After that yole thai wilde beseke Edwarde
That he might yelde till him, in a forward
That were honorable to kepe wod or beste,
And with his scirte full stable, and selede at the leaste,
To him, and all his, to haf in heritage,
And none otherwise, als term tyme and stage,
Bot als a propre thing that wer conquest til him.
When thai brouht that teithing Edward was full grim,
And bilauht him the fende als his traytour in lond.
Three hundreth marke he hette unto his wanis his own
That with him so mette, or bring his hede to town.
Now flies William Waleys, of pres nouht he spedis
In mores and marcis, roberrie him fedis."
(Lantoft's Chronicle, p.324.)
Langtoft, it will be seen, makes Wallace fly over moors and marshes
subsist on robbery.
SIR WILLIAM WALLACE'S MOTHER. - From this period downward to the present
time a tradition has held its ground that the mother of Wallace died at
Dunfermline on some one of her son's flights, and that she was hastily
buried at a spot, now in the northern churchyard, marked by a thorn tree.
This site was that of the Abbey Weeping Cross (the Churchyard Weeping
Cross), which, at the time of the Reformation, was destroyed, and the
Gospel tree or thorn erected in its stead on the site. The same thing was,
with few exceptions, in all other places.
If the mother of Wallace was interred at Dunfermline, she would be,
doubt, interred within the consecrated walls of the Abbey Church. As the
tradition continues so firm, we are inclined to believe that the body of
the mother of Scotland's great and true-hearted patriot "rests in peace"
within the consecrated walls of the church, where the daily service was
conducted, and not in the place pointed out where unknown strangers were
interred. If this tradition is correct, the interment must have taken
place a few weeks only before Edward and his Court took up their winter
quarters in the Monastery; and when the haughty monarch heard of it, and of
the hand the Abbot and the monks would have in the interment, this may have
been one to the causes which induced him to fire the Monastery at his
EDWARD I., KING OF ENGLAND, with his Court, arrive in Dunfermline. -
is a discrepancy in the accounts of some early historians regarding the
month and day of Edward's arrival in Dunfermline on this "expedition of
his." Langtoft's Chronicle, p.332, and Tytler's History of Scotland, vol.
i. p. 201, give 6th November, 1303, as the day and month of his arrival,
while Hailes, in his Annals of Scotland, vol. i. p.275, quoting from Prynne
and Rymer, &c., gives 11th December, 1303. We think the first the correct
date, because it will be seen by next entry that Edward, on 5th December
(six days befor the 11th), gave a donation to the Boy-Bishop enactment. So
far as we have been able to ascertain, this visit if the fourth one of
Edward to Dunfermline: the first, in 1291; the second and third, in 1296;
and the fourth, in 1303.
Hardyng, the old chronicler, records, in his own way, in an off-hand
manner, Edward's doings at Dunfermline, viz.:-
"King Edwarde then into Scotland went;
Through all Catness destroyed it in great hette.
The mounths hye and out ysles (straighte) he shent,
Till they obeyed all hole his regiment,
And wyntred then at Dunfermlin Abbey,
Where Saint Margarite is worshipped ever and aye."
(Hardyng's Chron. p.300.)
THE BOY-BISHOP "COMEDY" was enacted at Dunfermline this year.
received a fee for his performance from King Edward of England. The
following extract is from King Edward's Wardrobe Accounts:- "Edward I.,
King of England, gave to John, the son of John, the Bailiff, the
Boy-Bishop, in the King's Chapel of Dumferline, on the eve of St. Nicholas,
40/." (Wardrobe Accounts, Ad. MSS. No. 8835, A. S. Edward I., Brit. Museum;
also, vide Brayley's Historical and Graphical Illustrator, vol. i. p.89.)
Chambers, in The Book of Days, says:- "On St. Nicholas's Day,
times, a singular ceremony used to take place. This was the election of
the Boy-Bishop or Episcopus Puerorum, who, from this date 6th Dec.) to
Innocent's or Childermas Day, on 28th December, exercised a burlesque
episcopal jurisdiction, and, with his juvenile dean and prebendaries,
parodied the various ecclesiastical functions and ceremonies. It is well
known that previous to the Reformation these profane and ridiculous
mummeries were encouraged and participated in by the clergy
themselves....It seems to have constituted literally a mimic transcript of
the regular episcopal functions, and we do not discover any trace of parody
or burlesque beyond the inevitable one of the ludicrous contrast presented
by the diminutive bishop and his chapter to the grave and canonical figures
of the ordinary clergy of the cathedral. The actors in this solemn farce
were composed of the choristers of the church, and must have been well
drilled in the parts which they were to perform. The boy who filled the
character of bishop derived some substantial benefits from his tenure of
office, and is said to have had the power of disposing of such prebends or
vicarages as fell vacant during the period of his episcopacy. Besides the
regular buffooneries of the Boy-Bishop and his companions in England and
Scotland, they seem to have perambulated the neighbourhood and enlivened it
with their jocularities, in return for which a contribution, under the
designation of the 'Bishop's Subsidy,' would be demanded from passers-by
and householders. On one occasion Edward I., on his way to Scotland,
permitted a Boy-Bishop to say vespers before him in his chapel at Hetton,
near Newcastle-on-Tyne, and his Majesty made a handsome donation to this
mock representative. Edward I. appears to have been fond of Boy-Bishop
performances. See his donation to the Dunfermline Boy-Bishop of 40/s"
(Chambers's Book of Days, vol. ii. p.565.)
1304. - DUNFERMLINE MONASTERY BURNED! - King Edward I. of England, after
sojourn of ninety-seven days in the Monastery of Dunfermline, with his
retinue of courtiers, took his departure, early on the morning of February
10th, for Cambuskenneth, when he gave orders to destroy the Monastery by
fire. This barbarous order was obeyed, and in a few hours the magnificent
Monastery, and adjacent buildings on the east, were a heap of smoking
"Scarce had arose the dubious light of morn,
When clouds of smoke aloft in air were borne,
Threat'ning to quench the feeble dawning light,
And bring again the darkness of the night.
What horror seized, when suddenly the day
Waxed brighter than the full meridian ray!
When rudely roused amid its morning dreams,
Dunfermline saw its Abbey red with flames!
Beheld the fiery pyramids mount on high,
And flash their waving summits to the sky!
And heard those sounds, that peaceful hearts appal,
Of falling roof, and beam, and fractured wall.
Bnt higher yet their terror was increased,
When rushing on, they saw armed ranks invest
Its total circuit, and with joy exclaim,
At every conquest of the furious flame!
Arose, with savage yell, the horrid cries,
Amid the dread, unhallowed sacrifice!
Like Moloch's priests around his demon fire,
Their shouts were loudest when the flames rose higher!"
(Mercer's "Dunfermline Abbey: a Poem," pp. 65,66.)
This conflagration appears to have been chiefly confined to the monastic
buildings, south side of the Church, and in its progress destroying the
noble Frater Hall, the extensive dormitory (reaching from near the great
western window in the hall to the west gable of the Church), the infirmary,
lavatory, kitchen, stables, the charter-house, &c.
Historians affirm that, on this occasion, the great Abbey Church excaped
the flames; but it cannot be supposed that it escaped altogether uninjured
in so close proximity to such surges of devouring fire and flames. Matthew
of Westminster, in his account of this fiery disaster, assures us that "the
Church was spared," and also "a few houses fit for the monks."
"Thus fell in one revengeful day
(Alas! how easy to destroy!)
The toil of ages, pride of kings, -
Who clothed it in such array:
A pious nation's chiefest joy; -
Th' abode of learning; all that brings
Delight unto the eyes, or whence fair knowledge springs."
"Edward! for this and all th' atrocious deeds
Thou wrought'st on Scotland in thy fierce career,
As oft as sounded into northern ear,
Thy hated name deep execration breed;
For wheresoe'er thy armies came,
Was kindled with the ruthless flame
Round all who dared by Scotsmen free,
And spurn'd at Edward's slavery."
(Mercer's "Dunfermline Abbey: a Poem," p.67.)
Matthew of Westminster appears to stand alone in the vindication of
atrocious deed." Other historians use such epithets as the following when
alluding to it: - "Barbarous deed" - "unscrupulous and vindictive act" -
"the act of a vile miscreant" - "nothing worthy of a King in this deed of
Edward's" - "the deed exhibited a narrow mind of a low type" - "the act
will be held up to scorn by every right-minded historian in all ages to
come," &c. Matthew of Westminster justifies Edward by saying that "the
Scots had converted the house of the Lord into a den of thieves, by holding
their rebellious Parliament there, and, in time of war, issuing from thence
as from a place of ambush, plundering and destroying the English
inhabitants in Scotland." (For further particulars see Mat. of Westmin.
p.446; Fordun, xii.; Hailes's An. Scot. mol. i. p.276; Heron's Hist. Scot.
vol. ii. p.82; Tytler's Hist. Scot. vol. i. pp. 201-2-4, &c.)
It may be noted here, that this disaster is given under date 10th February,
1304. In the old reckoning it occurred on 10th February, 1303. Then the
year began on Ladyday (March 25th), and hence February 10th was in the 11th
month of 1303.
It is probable that on the eventful morning of February 10th, 1304,
would not scruple to leave his "fiery mark" on Malcolm Canmore's Tower, the
residence of Scottish KIngs; his propensity for revenge and destruction at
the time was intense, and it was therefore unlikely that he would leave
Malcolm Canmore's Tower untouched. Very likely it was also "devoured by a
fiery blast" on Feb. 10th, 1304, and a new royal residence would be
afterwards erected contiguous to the Monastery. This would probably be the
period when the under part of the Palace was built.
KING EDWARD I. OF ENGLAND appears to have been in Dunfermline for the
time (so far as is known) on the 1st day of May, 1304. (Rotuli Scotiae,
vol. i. pp.53,54; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p.264.)
MONASTERY REBUILDING. - It may be presumed that immediate means would
taken for rebuilding and repairing the Monastery, and also for the erection
of a new Palace. Probably the building, &c. of these edifices would
progress slowly, the country being then in such a disturbed state, and
under English rule. It would not be before 1315 that the new building
would likely be thoroughly completed.
The following composition view of the restored Monastery is supposed
taken from a point near the present mansion-house of Pittencrieff - what is
now known as the "Pends" was not then in existence. The south wall, the
conical tower, and the great west window will be readily recognised; it is
taken from a drawing made by "J. Kearsly, London, 1780."
1305. - "MALCOLM is Prior of Dunfermline Abbey, and Procurator for the
Abbot, at this date." (Printed Registrum de Dunfermlyn, p.225.)
THE PERPETUAL VICAR OF INVERKEITHING AND DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - In a charter
of this date, in the Register of Dunfermline - or decree-arbitral,
proceeding on a submission between the Abbey of Dunfermline and William
Gugy, Perpetual Vicar of Inverkeithing - it is decided and ordered that "a
tenth of all the growing corn, both in the fields and the gardens, in the
whole parish of Inverkeithing, shall be drawn by the Abbey: but the other
things (which are known to belong to his vicarage ) are reserved to the
Vicar." (Printed Registrum de Dunfermlyn, pp. 225,226, No. 338; Dalyell's
Monastic Antiquities, pp. 32,33.)
1306. - CHARTULARY, or Register of the Abbey, which appears to have
much neglected for a long series of years, begins this year to have more
frequent entries, probably on account of the coronation of King Robert the
Bruce, and an anticipated settled state of public affairs. It appears
singular how this MS. Register was prevented from falling into Edward's
RALPH, Lord Abbot of Dunfermline. - It is not known when Ralph ceased
functions at Dunfermline, or if he died before 1306, or if he demitted
office or was deposed; the last that is heard of Ralph is, when he was at
Berwick in 1296. It is likely he demitted office in consequence of the
disturbed state of affairs, the impoverishing of the Abbey by frequent
visits and sojourns of the English soldiery, and lastly, the destruction of
his Monastery; therefore Ralph would cease to be Abbot at the latest in
1304, and have for his successor in 1306, "Hugh, by Divine permission."
HUGH, Lord Abbot of Dunfermline. - There is no date on record referring
the election and consecration of Hugh, as Abbot of Dunfermline. It would
appear, however, that he was Lord Abbot as early as this date.
1309. - THE LORD ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE, in a Charter regarding "Pethbauchly"
(in the Register) styles himself "Hugh, Abbot by Divine permission."
(Print. Regist. Dunf. p.226, No.339; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p.185.)
1314. - EXCOMMUNICATION OF THE VICAR OF INVERKEITHING. - William Gugy,
Vicar of Inverkeithing, was found to be owing the sum of eight merks to the
Abbey of Dunfermline, for the non-payment of which it is ordered that he
shall be excommunicated. (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 230,231; Dal. Mon.
Antiq. p.59; vide "Excommunication," under dates 1245, 1342.)
1315. - A PERPETUAL LIGHT TO BE MAINTAINED before the Shrine of St.
Margaret in the Abbey. - King Robert the Bruce bestows by Charter, in free
gift to the Abbey, the vicarage of the Church of Inverkeithing, to defray
the charges of maintaining a "perpetually-lighted wax-candle before the
Shrine of the Blessed Margaret in the Choir." As this Charter is
interesting, we give a free translation of it in full:-
"Robert, by the grace of God King of Scots, to all upright men in his
land, greeting: Know ye that, for the safety of our own soul and that of
our predecessors and successors, Kings of Scotland, we have given, granted,
and by this our present Charter, have confirmed to God, the Blessed Mary
the Virgin, the Church of the Holy Trinity, and St. Margaret, Queen of
Dunfermlyn, and to the monks serving and to serve God for ever in the same,
the right of patronage of the vicar Church of Inverkeithing, with the
pertinents, as freely and quietly, fully, peacefully, and honourably as the
predecessors formerly of Roger de Moubray, knight, who had forfeited it to
us, have held and possessed the said right of patronage most freely,
quietly, and honourably in all things, by rendering to us nothing therefore
by only the suffrages of their prayers: Besides, we give and grant, and, by
this our present charter, confirm to the foresaid monks, the whole of our
new great Customs from all their lands within our kingdom, viz., the land
of the burghs of Dunfermlyne, Kirkcaldy, Musselburgh, and Queensferry, and
from all their other lands whatsoever; To also let the said monks have and
use their own Koketa, according to the liberties of their regality, and our
present concession in all their foresaid lands; and let this Koketa be
acknowledged and admitted by all burgesses and our people, and foreign
merchants throughout our whole kingdom, without obstruction from our
chamberlains, or other servants of ours whatsoever for the time being,
without petition from any other allocation of liberation, by finding for
this our donation and concession of the said Customs for us and our
successors, in honour of God and the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the aforesaid
Blessed Margaret in the Choir in front of her shrine, one wax candle
solemnly lighted, continually and forever. - In testimony whereof we have
caused our seal to be attached to our present Charter, these fathers being
witnesses. - WILLIAM, and WILLIAM, Bishops of ST. Andrews and Dunkeld;
BERNARD, our Chancellor, the Abbot of Aberborthick; DUNCAN and THOMAS
RANDOLPH, of Fife," &c. (Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 346, p.232,233.)
THE CHURCH OF KINROSS AND THE CHAPEL OF ORWELL bequeathed to the Abbey
Dunfermline by King Robert (I.), the Bruce, in honour of his predecessors
who were buried there; and on account of having specially chosen it to be
the "place of my sepulture, among the Kings of Scotland, in the honourable
Monastery of Dunfermline." (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 229,230,412.)
1316. - ROBERT DE CRAIL was Lord Abbot of Dunfermline this year.
It is not
known when his predecessor Hugh, the Abbot, died; neither is it known when
Robert de Crail was elected and consecrated Abbot. His name appears in
Charters for the first time as early as 1315. In the printed Register of
Dunfermline, charter No. 349, p. 236, date 1316, he is recorded as Abbot of
HOMAGE BY THE EARLS OF FIFE TO THE ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE. - a Writ in
Register of Dunfermline, notifies that a jury sat at Kirkcaldy, to decide
as to whether or not homage was due by the Earls of Fife to Robert, Abbot
of Dunfermline, for the lands of Cluny, and gave the following verdict:-
"That the jury well knew, and, indeed, some of them saw Malcolm, Earl of
Fife, do homage before the Great Altar (of Dunfermline Abbey) to Robert de
Keldeleth, then Abbot, for the lands of Cluny, previous to High Mass, on
the day that the Holy Margaret was translated at Dunfermline, in presence
of King Alexander III., seven Bishops, and seven Earls of Scotland: that
they know, and some of them also saw Colban, Earl of Fife, his son and
heir, do homage to Symon, Abbot of Dunfermline, in the Charter House, by
this token, that John Thyranus, at that time the Abbot's Chamberlain, got a
well-furred cloak for the homage: likewise, when Duncan, Earl of Fife, son
of Earl Colban, passed the night at Dunfermline with Abbot Ralph, the Abbot
demanded homage for the lands of Cluny, which he was willing to perform,
but the day appointed for that purpose was anticipated by Earl Duncan's
decease; also, that Duncan, Earl of Fife, son of the preceding Earl, on the
9th January, 1316, did homage and swore fealty to Robert de Crail, the
Abbot, before the Great Altar for the lands of Cluny, which he held, in
capite (in chief) of him and the Monastery." There are several notices
regarding the lands of Cluny in the Register of Dunfermline. The names of
the jurymen who sat in this Court were - Henry de Graham, Rector of the
Church of Dysart; William de Preston, Richard de Sudy, Simon de Longeton,
Magister Malcolmus de Gaitmilk, Symon the son of Sudy, William de Malville,
Walter de Benaly, William Scotus, Folanus de Levenauch, Mathew de Doler,
Willm Squier, Mathew de Ayton, Duncan de Maysterton, Ralph iuuene burgens
de Krail - fourteen persons on this jury. (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp.
235,236 No. 348; Dal. Mon. Antiq. pp. 22,23.) Some of this jury must have
been very aged persons, as they allude in 1315 to what they had seen in
1250, or 66 years previous to the former date.
1317. - THE CHURCH OF NEWLANDS, in Tweeddale, bequeathed by charter,
free and perpetual gift to Dunfermline Abbey, by John de Graham. (Print.
Regist. Dunf. pp. 236,237 No. 350.)
ENGLISH INVASION OF SCOTLAND BY SEA: their Ships Anchor at Inverkeithing.
"The men of war landed, and were repuls'd by William Sinclair the valiant
Bishop of Dunkeld, who chased them in all directions;" a great many were
persued to, and took refuge in, Dunfermline. (Fordun, lxii. c. 25;
Barbour, p.341.) Referring to this affair, Barbour says of the fleet -
"Wherefore into the Frith came they,
And endlend up it, held their way,
While they beside Innerkeithing,
On west half beside Dumfermling,
Took land, and fast began to reif" - (Steal.)
Bishop Sinclair, for this exploit, was, by King Robert, dubbed the King's
Bishop. Note. - Some authors have doubted that this "marauding expedition"
got the length of "Dunfermling toun." The probability is that it did, and
that the "marauders" found their way to things that did not belong to them.
THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY AND ST. MARGARET. - In a charter, conferring
privileges and possessions, &c., to the Abbey about this time, the Abbey,
for the first time, has the additional name of St. Margaret appended to it;
and after this date, in many of the Abbey Charters the designation is,
"Church of the Holy Trinity and St. Margaret, Dunfermline." (Print. Regist.
Dunf. p. 243, No. 356; pp. 243,244, No. 357, &c.)
1320. - OBLIGATIONS OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY TO ITS BONDMEN. - This year
Court was held in the Chapel of Logyn regarding its bondmen in Tweeddale.
The bondsmen, as appears from the Writ in the Register of Dunfermline,
demand that the Abbot shall appoint a bailie of their own race, who shall
repledge them to the Abbot's Court: to which demand answer is made by the
Jury, that such a bailie should be given to them, not only from feudal
right, but from use and wont. Secondly, They require that, if any of their
race shall be verging on want or disabled by old age, they may be
maintained by the Abbey. To this demand the Jury answer on their oath that
the Abbey is not bound to do so as a debt (ex debito), but as a favour to
men belonging to it. Thirdly, That if any of their race slay a man, or
commit any other crime for which he may be compelled to seek the immunity
of the Church, and shall retire to the Abbey of Dunfermline for safety,
that so long as he remains there, he shall be defended as the property of
the Abbey. To which demand the Jury answer, that, as the Monastery would
do so to a stranger, much more must it be done to their own men. Fourthly
and lastly, the bondsmen demand that if any of their race commit homicide,
and pay a composition for it, the Abbot and monks shall contribute 12 merks
to discharge the composition. To this last demand the Jury "declare that
they never heard of such a thing in all their lives." (Print. Regist. Dunf.
pp. 240,241; Dal. Mon. Antiq. pp. 46,47.) This Jury consisted of the
following eight persons:- Walter de Logan, William Squiere, William
Kylsolanus, Robertus de Dunfermline, Jacobus de Alsla, Thomas de Logyn,
Johannes de Gramithis, Richardus Littil, of Burgh Dunf. Note. - William
Kylsolanus and Robertus de Dunfermline are, respectively, the Abbots of
Kelso and Dunfermline.
1321. - RANDOLPH, EARL OF MORAY, AND HIS PLACE OF SEPULTURE. - The great
Randolph, Earl of Moray, has a Charter of this date in the Register of
Dunfermline, referring to several matters. In this Charter he expresses
his desire "that his body shall be buried in the Chapel below the
Conventual Church of Dunfermline, and donates forty shillings for the
support of a priest, who is to say mass for his soul and the souls of his
ancestors every day in the year, as well during his lifetime as after his
death, and whether his body is buried at Dunfermline or not; and that
during the continuance of the mass two great wax candles must burn from the
beginning of the mass till its conclusion - one at his head, the other at
his feet." (Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 357, p. 244; also, vide date 1332.)
As Randolph's Charter is interesting, we here give a free translation
"To all who shall see or hear this Charter, Thomas Randolph, Earl of
Lord of Annandale and Man, greeting in the Lord: Know ye that I, for the
safety of the soul of our dearest uncle and lord, Robert, by the grace of
God the illustrious King of Scotland, and for the safety of our own soul
and that of our predecessors and successors, have given, granted, and, by
this our present Charter, have confirmed to God, to the Blessed Virgin
Mary, and to the Church of the Holy Trinity and St. Margaret (Queen of
Scotland) of Dunfermline, to the monks serving and to serve God in the same
place, the whole of our land of Cullelouch, with the pertinents in the
barony of Aberdour, to be kept and held by the same religious men and their
successors, without any hindrance from us or our heirs, in fee heritage, in
woods and plains, moors and marshes, petaries and turbaries, standing
waters and mills, ways, paths, and pastures, and with all the conveniences,
liberties, and easements, as well named as not named, under the earth and
above the earth, pertaining to the aforesaid land, or by any right or title
proving to pertain, as freely, quietly, fully and honourably as we have
held or could have held the said land by its right divisions or our said
donation in all things, most quietly, fully, and honourably. We give also
and grant to the foresaid religious men forty shillings sterling from the
land of Monflooer, in the shire of Scone, by the hand of the owner for the
time being, to be taken up proportionally every year at the Feast of
Pentecost, and St. Martin in winter, by finding for this our donation for
ever, in honour of the Holy Virgin Mary, in her Chapel below the Conventual
Church of Dunfermline, one waga* of wax, to burn solemnly in the usual
manner for three solemn days every year: on the night of the Birthday of
our Lord, on the day of the Purification of the Virgin aforesaid, and the
day of the Assumption of the same. By finding also in the said Chapel a
priest-monk every day for ever to celebrate mass for our soul, and that of
our predecessors and successors, where we have ordained our body to be
buried, at which mass indeed two wax candles are solemnly to burn from the
beginning of mass to the close, one of which to stand at our head and the
other at our feet; and it is to be known that the whole of the solemnity
before mentioned shall be done and implemented from the day of the
concession of the present Charter, in the form aforesaid, as well during
our life as after our death, our body being buried or not buried in the
same place, by making so much due and customary service from the said land.
We, then, Thomas Randolph and our heirs, shall warrant and acquit and for
ever defend against all men and women the foresaid land of Cullelouch, with
forty shillings annually aforesaid to the forsaid religious men and their
successors as is granted. In testimony whereof," &c. (Print. Regist. Dunf.
pp. 243,244, No. 357.)
*According to Ducange, a waga (English, wey) is a weight of 96lbs.
TWO ADDITIONAL MONKS TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. - In his Charter entitled,
"Carta de Kynedyr," Randolph gives and confirms to the Church of the Holy
Trinity, Dunfermline, and the Abbot and monks there serving God, and
addition of two monks to their number, for which additional burden he
leaves property and revenue for their maintenance, &c. (Print. Regist.
Dunf. No. 358, pp. 244,245.)
1322. - COCQUET SEAL OF THE REGALITY OF DUNFERMLINE. - The Cocquet Seal
the Regality Court of Dunfermline was engraven this year by sanction of
King Robert the Bruce, by Chapter, dated at Scone, 10th July, 1322, along
with letters patent to all who paid customs at Bruges, in Flanders, or
elsewhere, notifying that wherever this Seal was in due form produced, it
was to be recognised as the authority for collecting the customs granted to
the Abbey by the King, &c. This seal is a brass matrix or double seal.
The above engraving represents, in full-size, the regality side of the
The following is a free translation of the Charter, or Writ, of King
the Bruce, to the Magistrates of Bruges, respecting the Coketa Seal of the
Regality of Dunfermline Abbey:-
"Robert, by the Grace of God, King of Scots, wishes prosperity and a
continual increase of happiness to our very dear friends, the Magistrates
and Ministers of the Burgh, and the whole community of the City of Bruges,
- Know ye, that from a regard to Divine charity, we have granted to the
religious men, the Abbot and Convent of Dunfermline, our Monks, the whole
of our large Customs from all their lands within our kingdom, in free,
pure, and perpetual alms; Wherefore we have thought, wherever and whenever
your merchants of Flanders, or other merchants of any nation whatever,
coming to your country with their merchandise, shall present to you in due
form the seal of the said religious men, your whole community should be
requested to be careful to receive it as our own proper Seal. In testimony
whereof, we send you these our letters patent. _ Given at Scone, on the
tenth day of July, in the sixteenth of our reign" (10th July, 1322).
(Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 361, p. 246.)
Mr. Laing, in his "Descriptive Catalogue of Impressions from Scottish
Seals, Edin. 1850," refers to the Regality Seal of Dunfermline Abbey as
follows:- "The cokete and counter seals (of Dunfermline Regality) are fine
and interesting specimens, in most excellent preservation. The design of
the Cokete Seal is an elegant full-length figure of Saint Margaret, with an
open crown of three points. In her right hand she holds a sceptre, and a
book in her left. At the dexter side is a shield bearing the arms of
Scotland, and at the sinister another, with a cross fleury between five
martlets, being the paternal arms of the Queen. The back-ground is
elegantly ornamented with foliage," (and round the circumference of the
seal is the following legend in the ancient letters of the period: S COKETE
REGALITATIS DE DVMFERMLYN). "The Counter Seal merely contains the arms of
Scotland, foliage, and round its circumference ROBERTUS DEI GRACIA REX
SCOTORVM." This seal is and has been in possession of the writer of the
Annals for a great many years. (See Annals Dunf. date 1748.)
CHARTER FROM ROBERT, ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE, TO THE BURGESSES AND COMMUNITY
OF DUNFERMLINE. - This is the first Charter from the Monastery to the
Burgh. The following is a free translation of the Charter :-
"To all who shall see or hear this Charter, - Robert, by Divine permission,
Abbot of Dunfermline, and the Convent of the same place, humbly wishes
eternal salvation in the Lord: Be it known to you, that we (after serious
and attentive deliberation in our Chapter-House on what regards the
interests of our Monastery) have given, granted, and by this present
Charter confirmed, to the community of our burgh of Dunfermlyn, and the
burgesses thereof, as a Common, that part of our moor, extending in length
from the boundaries of Waltirselis to the straight marshes of Beedgall
(reserving to ourselves the great moss of Beedgall), and from the highway
to Perth, and the boundaries of Greenauch to the straight marches of Tulch,
in breadth, together with the peat-moss in said moor: And likewise that
piece of land extending from the highway to Perth to Moncor-bank, and
situated within the two ditches (duo sycheta) running in a line from
Moncor, till they reach the highway to Perth, the said piece of land being
of equal breadth with that of Moncor opposite thereto, to be freely, and
without the slightest disturbance, completely, honourably, and peaceably,
holden and possessed by the existing community and burgesses in all time
coming, together with all conveniences derivable from said grazing their
cattle: And, in consideration of the premisses, the said community and
burgesses are to pay to us and our successors annually, at the Festival of
the Blessed Queen Margaret, one pair of white Paris Gloves, or Sixpence
sterling, good and lawful money, in addition to the feu-duty yearly payable
to us and our Monastery by the said burgesses for the burgage and
privileges of our said burgh. In testimony whereof, we have affixed to
this Charter the seal of our Chapter, the Chapter being witnesses."
There is also a transcript of this Charter in the Town Council
Charter-chest of Dunfermline. (Vide Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 596, p.415;
Fernie's Hist Dunf. pp. 195,196; Mercer's Hist. Dunf. pp. 306,307.)
Note. - This Charter is not dated; it is placed near the middle year
Abbotship of Robert of Crail. His predecessor Hugh was the first Abbot who
styled himself Abbot by "Divine permission." Robert of Crail, Abbot (from
1313-14 to 1327-28), continues the style or designation, and as there were
no other Roberts Abbot until A.D. 1500, there remains no room to doubt that
Robert of Crail was the granter of this Charter, and it has been thus
placed about the middle year of his Abbotship to reduce the error of date
to a minimum.
GREAT CUSTOMS OF DUNFERMLINE. - King Robert the Bruce intimated, by
Charter, to his Great Chamberlain, that the Abbey had a gift of the Great
Customs of Wool, Skins, and Leather, arising from their own lands and men
throughout the whole kingdom. This Charter is dated "Forfar, 10th
September, 1322." (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.247, No. 362; Dal. Mon. An. p.20,
also p.252, No.369.)
1323. - DAVID II. BORN IN THE PALACE OF DUNFERMLINE. - David II., the
second son of King Robert I., was born at Dunfermline on 5th March.
(Fordun, xiii. 5, 12; Barbour, xiv.; Hailes's An. Scot. vol. ii. p.114.)
Winton informs us that -
"De Kyng Robertis swn Dauy
Wes borne in-til Dunfermelyn."
(Wynton's Orygynale Cronykil Scot. vol. ii. p.132.)
At the time of David's birth, the poets of the day were very fulsome
their praises of him, declaring that he would one day rival his father's
fame; but this was not to be. (Vide Hist. Scot. inter. 1340-1371.) King
Robert the Bruce had a son named John by his first wife. He appears to
have died in his infancy. He was buried in the Priory of Restennot,
near Forfar. (Gordon's Monas. Scotiae, p.264.)
NORTH QUEENSFERRY CHAPEL OF ST. JAMES. - "William, Bishop of St. Andrews,
gives the Chapel dedicated to St. James, in North Queensferry to the Abbey
of Dunfermline, for the service of which the monks must find two chaplains
to celebrate Divine worship, and must also provide a chalice, vestments,
books, and ornaments, suitable to the chapel." (Print. Regist. Dunf. p.
251, No. 367; Dal. Mon. Ant. p. 36; also date 1479.)
1325. - "JOHN" OF DUNFERMLINE was clerk of Liberance of the King's Palace
at Scone. (Chamberlain Rolls.)
1326. - WEST PORT. - This, the first mentioned Port of the burgh, is
noticed in a Charter of Robert, Abbot of Dunfermline, regarding St.
Catherine's Almhouse, &c., which states that this almshouse stood "extra
portam" - that is, without the Port. This Port, in aftertimes was called
the West Port, to distinguish it from the Burgh Ports, afterwards built.
It stood in the middle of St. Catherine's Wynd. (See Annals Dunf. date
1327. - ST. CATHERINE'S CHAPEL AND ELEEMOSYNARY HOUSE DUNFERMLINE. -
date of erection of this Chapel and Almshouse is unknown. They are not
mentioned in any record until the year 1327, when their names occur in a
Charter in the Register of Dunfermline. The Charter begins as follows:-
"To all the Sons of Holy Mother Church, Robert de Carell, by Divine
permission, Abbot of Dunfermline," &c. The Charter refers to the Chapel,
the Almshouse, and time of distributing alms to the poor, as also to the
Port, and the Gyrth Bow, but is too long for insertion. (See Print. Regist.
Dunf. No. 370, pp. 253,254.)
LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM WALLACE, Written by John (or Arnold) Blair in
Dunfermline Monastery. In the year 1298 John Blair, sometimes called
Arnold Blair, a learned monk of Dunfermline, became chaplain to Sir William
Wallace. After the hero's death in 1305, it is understood that he
re-entered the Monastery of Dunfermline, and, during the later years of his
abode there, wrote a history of his renowned master (about 1327). It bears
the title of "Relationes Quaedam; Arnoldi Blair, Monachi de Dunfermelen &
Capellani, D. Willielmi Wallas, Militis," &c. (Vide Cottonian MSS. Brit.
Museum; Nicholson's Scot. Historical Library, pp. 248,249; Chal. Hist.
Dunf. vol, i. pp. 397,531.)
ROYAL INTERMENT OF ELIZABETH THE QUEEN IN THE CHOIR OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.
Elizabeth the Queen, consort of King Robert I. (Bruce), died at Cullen
Castle, near Cullen, on 26th October, 1327, and was interred shortly
afterwards in the Abbey Choir. King Robert, at the time of her decease,
was prosecuting the Siege of Norham Castle, in England. (Vide Barbour, xx.;
Fordun, xiii. 12-14; Hemingford, vol. ii, p. 269; Hailes's And. Scot. vol.
ii. p.352; Tytler's Hist. Scot. vol. i. p. 229, &c.) Her age at death is
not known. She was a daughter of Aymer de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, in
Ireland. Her remains were accidentally discovered, in 1817, when the
ground of the Old Choir was being prepared for the New Abbey Church. Her
place of sepulture, was found to be a little to the north-east of King
Robert's tomb, viz., about three yards north-east of the stalk which
supports the present pulpit. (Regarding the discovery of her remains, see
Chal. Hist. Dunf., pp. 152,153,154.) Fordun's note regarding the site of
her tomb runs thus: "Anno Domini 1327, Septimo Kalendas Novembris, obiit
Domina Elizabeth regina, mater regis David, et sepulta est in choro de
Dunfermeling, juxta regem Robertum sponsum suum" - that is: In the year of
our Lord, 1327, on the 26th October, Dame Elizabeth the Queen, the mother
of King David, died, and was buried in the Choir of Dunfermline, near her
husband, King Robert. Some authors state that she died in Cullen Castle,
and give different dates of months, but all agree that it was between
October 26th and November 7th, 1327.
In an old Charter by Queen Mary, mention is made of land and money,
had been bequeathed by King Robert the Bruce, to pray for the soul of
Elizabeth the Queen (for ever). The following is an extract from said
"I have given and grantit, and be this oure letres have confirmed, for
and oure successouris gevis and granttis oure speciale consent and assent,
that ye auld chaiplanrie of five poundis, infeft be umquhile oure
predecessoure, King Robert the Bruce, of gude mynde, of the burrow rudis of
oure burge of Cullane with thretty-thre schillingis four pennys in
augmentatioune thairof, be the Baillies and comunitie of the said burghe to
sustene ane chaiplane daylie residente yat tyme quhilk now may nocht leif
yairupon to pray for the saul of Elizabeth his spous, quene of Scottis,
quhilk decessit in our said burge of Cullane, and her bowellis erdit in
oure lady kirk thairof," &c.
This deed is dated 12th July, 1543, and was printed in the Banffshire
Journal of date December 15th, 1863. From all this it would appear, that
her body had been embalmed at Cullen, and her bowels interred in the "Lady
Chapel of Cullen," and the embalmed body thereafter taken to Dunfermline,
and buried in the Choir of the Abbey, adjacent to the site selected by King
Robert, her husband, as his place of sepulture.
The burgh of Cullen, in Banffshire, is about 150 miles north of
Dunfermline. Queen Mary would be an infant about seven months old when
that Cullen Charter was indited; consequently, it would be made out in her
name, under the sanction of the Earl of Arran, Regent of Scotland.
1328. - KING ROBERT THE BRUCE appears to have spent a considerable portion
of his time, this year, at Dunfermline and "Fons Scotiae" (Scotland Well).
The King, being indisposed, was living in retirement at Dunfermline, and
taking the benefit of the waters of Scotland Well for his complaints.
Scotland Well is about 17 miles north-east of Dunfermline, on the north
bank of Lochleven.
CHARTERS, WRITS, &C. - In the Register of Dunfermline there are
and Writs entered, during the reign of King Robert the Bruce, granted in
favour of the Abbey, &c. (between 1306-1329), 12 of which are from King
Robert, the last entitled "Quaedam inquisitio ca de tra de Oroc ptinen ad .
. . ." - " and inquisition of the lands, &c., of Orrock." The Charter is
dated 1328. These Charters are between pp. 224-255 of Printed Register of
Dunfermline, and are numbered from 337 to 371 inclusive.
1329 - ROYAL INTERMENT OF KING ROBERT THE BRUCE AT DUNFERMLINE. - King
Robert I., the Bruce, of immortal memory, died of leprosy in Cardross
Castle, on the Clyde, Dumbertonshire, on 7th June, 1329, in the 55th year
of his age, and 24th of his reign, and was interred with great pomp and
ceremony in the middle of the Choir of Dunfermline Abbey. (Barbour, xx.;
Fordun, xiii. 12,14; Hemingford, ii. 269; Abrid. Scot. Chron. p. 112;
Hailes's An. Scot. vol. i. p.353; Hay's Scotia Sacra; Buchanan's Hist.
Scot.; Guthrie's Hist. Scot, &c.) Fordun's words are, "Sepultus est rex
apud monasterium de Dumfermelyn, in medio chori debito cum honore." (As
above.) Winton, alluding to his death, says -
"In Cardros quhare Kyng Robert lay
In lang Sicknes hys lattyr day,
He closed in gratyows state and pure
Hys Spyryt sende to the Creatoure.
In the Kyrk of Dwnfermlyn
Hys body wes entery'd syne,
And gud Jamys of Dowglas
Hys heart tuk as fyrst ordany'd was,
For to thei Haly Land;
How that was tane on hand
Well purportis Brwsys Buk,
Quhay will tharof the matter luke," &c.
(Wynton's "Orygynale Cronikil of Scotland," vol. ii. p.136.)
King Robert's death "was long and sorely lamented throughout the whole
land." History informs us of the arrangements made, and the expenses
disbursed in connection with his funeral, but is silent on the subject of
the proceedings and procession on the day of his funeral at Dunfermline.
There is no doubt, however, that it was a large funeral, probably the
largest ever seen in Scotland, each heart throbbing with sorrow and regret,
as it went along. Among the mourners on that day would be observed the
young King, David II.; Randolph, Earl of Moray; the Earl of Fife, the guid
Sir James Douglas, Sir David Berkeley, Sir Malcolm Fleming, Sir Gilbert
Hamilton, &c., and many others of Scotland's heroes, besides others of the
nobility, knights, squires, bishops, abbots, and other clergy, "in numerous
After the sacred rites of the Church in the Choir were concluded, and
before the coffin was lowered into its last resting-place, a great hero and
orator takes up a position near the place of sepulture, and made an oration
over the great departed hero. This was Sir Gilbert Hamilton, one of the
seven knights who "kept the King's person in the Battle of Bannockburn."
He attended the funeral to Dunfermline, and "made ane singular oration
(over the grave), in manner of deploration, in his lawd and commendation,
for he wes ane naturale oratore in English, and could exprime maist in
little room," &c. (Cham. Gaz. Scot. p.528.) Barbour's account of the
funeral ceremony is as follows:-
"I hope that none that is on life
The lamentation can describe
That folk for their Lord made;
And when they long thus sorrowed had,
They have him had to Dumferline,
And him solemnly erded syne,
In a fair tomb into the Quire.
Bishops and Prelates that there were,
Assoilzed him - when the service
Was done, as they best could devise."
It would seem that the principal mourners remained in Dunfermline for
time after the funeral.
"And syne upon the other day
Sorry and wo they went their way; -
And he debowelled was cleanly,
And als balmed syne full richely,
And the worthy Lord of Dowglas
His heart, as it forspoken was,
Received has in great daintie
With great and fair solemntie."
(Barbour's "Bruce," pp. 430-432. See also Appendix G., and Annals
dates 1817-1819.) Dr. J. Hill Burton, in his Hist. Scot. vol. ii. I,
states that "King Robert the Bruce died at Cardross, on the northern shore
of the Frith of Forth"!
The following accounts and disbursements of moneys, in connection with
obsequies of King Robert the Bruce, are taken from the Chamberlain Rolls:-
CLERK OF LIBERANCE, MCCCXXIX.
Account of John of Dunfermline, Clerk of Liberance of our Lord the King's
household, rendered at Scone.
And to John of Lithcu for expenses incurred about the funeral of the
L. xix, for which he will answer.
The same debits himself with 23 and a-half stones of wax from the
Chamberlain, which he delivered to John of Lithcu, and so balanced.
Fine Linen. - Be it remembered, that of the fine linen and books of
delivered by the Chamberlain, having been received by purchase, there are
delivered to John of Lithcu 5 pieces of fine linen, and 5 books of
gold-leaf, for the lamp and apparatus of the King's funeral; and, to Thomas
Armoure, 24 pieces and half an ell; And all the residue, about the herse
(or temporary erection) and vestments round the altar besides the 9 pieces
and 3 books of gold remaining in possession of the Sacristan of
He credits himself with payment made for vestments and copes, and one
bedcover, for the use of our Lord the King, œ8 os. 8d.; and to Thomas de
Carnoto for the tomb of our Lord the King, made at Paris, œ66 13s. 4d.
To John, the apothecary, as a gift from the King, œ14 13s. 4d.; and
same for his fee, œ18.
To John, the apothecary, by the King's orders, œ66 8s.; and to the same
a robe, 26s. 8d.
To the mason of the tomb, for his wages, and a gratuity given to him
keeper, by sure account held with Sir Walter of Twynham, œ38 12s.
And to Richard Barber, in the preceding year, for the said tomb, œ13
And to the workman of the tomb, for freight of the said tomb, and for
expenses from Paris to Bruges, and in England and elsewhere, to
Dunfermline, œ12 10s.
And in purchasing two horses for carrying the litter, œ10 13s. 4d.;
boards of Eslandia, bought for the Chapel, erected over our lord the King's
body, on the day of the funeral, 40s.
And to Sir David Barclay, for his expenses at Dunfermline, when he was
purveyor for our Lord the King's funeral, œ28.
And to the Abbot of Dunfermline for his oblation on the day of the King's
funeral, according to agreement, œ66 13s. 4d.
And to the Rector of the Church of Cardross for the oblation pertaining
him of our lord the King's funeral. œ20.
The same credits himself with payment to Henry of Driden for the King's
soul, in part recompensation of the losses which he sustained by reason of
his fee of 100 shillings from the multures of the Mills of Munros,
subtracted by Sir David of Graham, 100s.; and to Brynebill, in charity for
the King's soul, 6s.8d.
And with the purchase of a hundred thousand of gold-leaf, bought at
Newcastle and York; six hundred of bipartite gold-leaf, with paper, and a
chest for holding the same; in the seven pieces and five ells of fine
linen, together with expenses made about the same, for the funeral of our
lord the King, œ7 16s. 3d.
And with the purchase of four pieces of fine linen, and of one thousand
five hundred of gold-leaf, delivered to Taskynus, the armourer, for our
lord the King's funeral, œ6 6s. 7d.
Wax. - And to John of Lithcu, by letter about our lord the King's funeral,
478 stones and 4 pounds (of wax); and to the same, for the same cause, 84
stones and 1 pound.
ACCOUNTS OF THE CHAMBERLAIN, MCCCXXX.
Account of Sir Malcolm Fleming, steward of our lord the King's household,
from 27th February 1329 (-30) to 10th January following:-
And for the costume of the Steward and his suite, at our lord the King's
funeral, one piece cloth.
Buget. - To Knights for their costume about the King's funeral, 3 surtouts,
and 2 mantles of black buget.
To John of Lessydwyn, for his stipulated robe for iron-work about the
King's tomb. 20s.
And in iron-work about our deceased lord the King's tomb, besides one
elsewhere, charged œ21 8s. 2d.
And for one cask of wine, bought and given to the preaching friars of
Perth, for the King's soul, 66s. 8d.
ACCOUNT 25 JUNE, MCCCXXX.
And for certain expenses about our lord the King's funeral, made at
and Cambuskenneth, of which expenses the Sheriff of Stirling has to render
account, œ14 13s. 4d.
Meal. - And to seven paupers, for the KIng's soul, for one year ended
the Feast of St. Peter, ad vincula, 7 chalders 9 bolls, and a third part of
ACCOUNT 12 MARCH, MCCCXXX.
Wheat. - And to Sir Malcolm Fleming, at the obsequies of our lord the
5 bolls 3 firlots.
CLERK OF THE KITCHEN.
To Sir Malcolm Fleming, at the obsequies of our lord the King at
Dunfermline, 60 muttons.
ACCOUNT RENDERED 14 MARCH, MCCCXXX.
And to the Abbot of Dunfermline, for money due to him by reason of the
deceased lord the KIng's funeral, œ66 1s.
And to the preaching friars of Berwic, by warrant of the auditors of
accounts, for the deceased King's soul, for one chalder of wheat and a
chalder of barley, œ4.
CHAMBERLAIN'S ACCOUNT, 14 DECEMBER, MCCCXXXI.
Meal. - And to seven paupers, for the King's soul, for the year of this
account, ending on the Feast of St. Peter, which is called ad vincula, next
to come, 6 chalders 9 bolls and three parts of a boll.
From these important Rolls we learn several interesting items of
information, viz., that the marble tomb, or monument, erected to the memory
of King Robert, was made in Paris; that, when finished, it was forwarded to
Bruges, under the charge of workmen; at bruges, or at Ostend, it would be
put on board the Abbot of Dunfermline's ship, and thence, most likely, to
Queensferry on the Forth, for its destination in the Abbey. Bruges, it
will be recollected, traded with Dunfermline. (See "Cocquet Seal," date
1322.) Also, that the body of the King appears to have been taken along
the old Roman road direct to Dunipace from Cardross; from thence, via
Stirling, to Dunfermline. By such a route the distance from Cardross to
Dunfermline would be about 60 miles.
These Rolls do not inform us where the King's body was embalmed, but
likely it would be at Cardross, by John, "the apothecary." (See also E in
the Appendix for Froissart's account of the last moments of the great
1330. - KING ROBERT THE BRUCE'S MARBLE TOMB. - Immediately after the
funeral of the valiant King, it was resolved that a magnificent tomb of
white marble be erected over his grave. It would appear that there were no
marble artists in Scotland at this period, consequently, application had to
be made to the celebrated worker in marble at Paris, viz., Richard Barber.
He undertook to furnish such a tomb according to the plans sent to him for
œ13 6s. 8d. (a large sum in those days). The tomb was finished by Barber
during the summer of 1330, and despatched immidiately thereafter from Paris
to Dunfermline, via Bruges, and erected over Bruce's remains, in the middle
of the Choir of Dunfermline Abbey, during the autumn of 1330. Of the form
or aspect of this tomb there exists no description, but from the fragments
of ornamental marble found, in 1817-1818, on the site where it stood, it
would be a tomb worthy of "the immortal hero." (See Annals Dunf. date
1817-1818.) Fordun has preserved Bruce's epitaph, which, no doubt, would
be cut into one of the conspicuous panel-spaces of the tomb, viz.:-
"HIC ?ACET INVICTUS ROBERTUS, REX BENEDICTUS.
QUI SUA CESTA LEGIT, REPETAT QUOT BELLA PEREGIT.
AD LIBERTATUM PERDUXIT, PER PROBITATEM,
ROGNUM SCOTORUM; ?UNC DIVAT IN ARCE POLORUM."
That is - "Here lies the Invincible Robert, blessed King.
Let him who
reads his exploits repeat how many wars he carried on. He led the Kingdom
of the Scots to freedom by his uprightness; now let him live in the Citadel
of the Heavens." (Fordun Scotichron, viii. 15; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i.
THE ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE (Robert de Carel) received from the National
Exchequer the sum of œ66 1s. this year, being his expenses, &c., for
religious duties rendered on the occasion of the obsequies of King Robert
the Bruce's funeral at Dunfermline, 14th March. (Chamberlain Rolls, &c.;
Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p.497.)
"THE PERPETUAL VICAR OF INVERKEITHING" comes to Dunfermline regarding
Poverty of his Church. - In a Charter, or Writ, in the Register of
Dunfermline, dated this year, it is recorded that John de Kinross,
Perpetual Vicar of Inverkeithing, came to Dunfermline, and represented to
the Abbot and Monks that his place was so much exhausted by exactions and
contributions, apostolical as well as royal, that there were not sufficient
funds for the ornamenting and repairing of the Choir, &c. The Monastery
agreed to pay half the expense of doing so in future. It is somewhat
singular to find that this Charter is dated on Sunday. Dunfermline
fraternity had in so doing relaxed a little from the strictness of their
Order. The Charter is dated thus: - "The Sabbath-day before the Feast of
St. Matthew, the Apostle and Evangelist (Sept 21), Anno Dom. M.CCC.XXX.o"
(Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 372, p. 256.)
1331. - ROBERT DE CRAIL, Abbot of Dunfermline, ceased to be Abbot about
ALEXANDER DE BER appears in the Charters of the Register of Dunfermline,
for the first time this year as Abbot of the Church of the Holy Trinity,
Dunfermline. (Print. Regist. de Dunf. No. 380, p.261.) He ranks as the
16th Abbot of Dunfermline. It is not known when he was elected and
consecrated Abbot. Neither is it known what became of his predecessor,
Abbot Robert - whether he died in office, or demitted his charge, or was
1332. - INTERMENT OF REGENT MORAY AT DUNFERMLINE. - Thomas Randolph,
of Moray, and Regent of Scotland, died suddenly at Musselburgh, on 20th
July, 1332, and was interred below the Lady Chapel at Dunfermline Abbey,
according to the directions he had given in his Charter of date 1321. He
was Regent of Scotland from the death of King Robert, the Bruce, to the
date of his untimely fate. He was married to the sister of King Robert,
and consequently was the King's brother-in-law. His age at death is not on
The great Randolph was one of "the commanding leaders" on the field
Bannockburn in 1314. On the death of the Bruce in 1329, he was elected
Regent of Scotland. In July, 1332, he was sojourning in Musselburgh when
he was poisoned by an insidious monk. "His death was the cause of great
sorrow and lamentation." Hailes, in his Annals of Scotland, says that
Randolph "was a man to be remembered while integrity, prudence, and valour
are held in esteem among men." (Vide Barbour-a-Pinkerton, vol, iii. p.179;
Fordun, ii. p.29; Wynton's Oryg. Cron. Scot. vol. ii. p.146; Abrid. Scot.
Chron. p.116; Hailes' An. Scot. vol. ii. p.146; Dal. Monas. Antiq. p. 52,
&c.) The precise spot where the remains of Randolph were interred is not
known, but it would appear it was some where within the area of the present
Session-house of the New Abbey Church. A memorial should here be erected
to his memory. Barbour, in his reference to the "good and great warrior
"The good Earl governed th land,
And held in peace so the countrie
That it was never on his day
So well, as I heard old men say,
But syne, a'lace, poisoned was he
By a false monk full traitorouslie;
To see his dead bodie was great pitie.
Thir Lord's died upon this wise,
Be that high Lord of all thyngs is
Up to his meikle bliss them bring,
And grant his grace, that their offspring
Lead well the land, and intentive
Be to follow in all their life
Their noble elders great bountie
Where one fold God in Trinity
Bring us nigh to his meikle bliss,
Where always lasting liking is."
(Barbour's "Bruce," p.443.)
EDWARD BALIOL AND HIS ARMY ARRIVE IN DUNFERMLINE. - Edward Baliol,
contending for the Crown of Scotland, during the minority of David II.,
after landing his forces at Burntisland, advanced with his small army to
Dunfermline, on August 3rd, where he found a seasonable supply of 500
excellent spears, and a quantity of provisions, which had been stored up in
the Palace some days before by Randolph, the Regent. (Tytler's Hist. Scot.
vol. ii. p.12; Bland's Collection, vol. i. p. 558; Knighton, p.2560; Chron.
Lanercost; Hailes's An. Scot. vol. ii. p.148; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i.
Referring to this incident, old Winton says -
"The Inglismen yhit never-the-las,
Fra thai tuk land, thare byddan wes,
And restyde thame a quhyle; and syne
Thai tuk the wai up til Dwnfermlyne,
And thare all a quhyle thai lay,
And sent thare schyppys about in Tay," &c.
(Wynton's Orygynale Cronikil Scot. vol. ii. p.148.)
1334. - THE TOWN OF KIRKCALDY, &C., GIVEN TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.
- In a
Parliament of this year, the town of Kirkcaldy was made a Burgh of
Regality, and mortified, along with its harbours, to the Abbots of
Dunfermline successively. (Sibbald's Hist. Fife et Kin. p.314; Webster's
Topo. Dict. of Scot. p.407.)
1335. - A PARLIAMENT was held at Dunfermline, when Sir Andrew Moray
elected Regent of Scotland during the minority of David II. (Vide An.
Dunf. date 1338; Fordun-a-Hearn, p. 1028-1032; Tytler's Hist. Scot. vol.
SIR JOHN DE STRIVILIN AND ST. MARGARET'S FEAST AT DUNFERMLINE. - Edward
Baliol, the Pretender to the Crown of Scotland, had entrusted the siege of
Lochleven Castle to Sir John de Strivilin. Allan de Vipont held the Castle
for David II. The siege was carried on until 19th June, on which day Sir
John's hopes of success were destroyed. The old historians state that the
19th of June was kept as a holiday in remembrance of St. Margaret; people
from the most distant parts of the country resorted to Dunfermline to
celebrate the anniversary of the festival of the saint, and to pay their
adorations at her shrine. Thither went Sir John de Strivilin, with part of
his garrison - some bent on religious duties, some on making purchases,
thinking that their position on the banks of Lochleven were "secure against
Regarding the besiegers leaving their fortifications for Dunfermline,
Winton says -
"Before the Castelle thus thai lai
Til Saynt Margret the Qwensys dai -
That dai Schyr Jhon de Striviline
Past wyth hys curt til Dunfermlyne,
And al the gentlys that wyth hynm ware -
And in the tyme that thai ware thar,
The Stwf that was of that Castelle,
Ful wythyng gat and harde rycht weil
That wyth Schyr Jhon of Strivilyn
Thare days past to Dunfermlyn."
Allan de Vipont, Governor of the Castle (Lochleven), took advantage
absence of Sir John at Dunfermline, and was successful in destroying the
bulwarks which the besiegers were erecting. An express was sent from
Kinross to Sir John, who, with his followers, immediately set out for his
camp, swearing dreadful oaths by the way to his men, and vowed that he
would not abandon his enterprise until he had razed the Castle and put the
garrison to the sword. The appearance of things, however, on his arrival
at his camp made him at once raise the siege.
Referring to this, Winton goes on to say -
"Word came til Dwnfermlyn syne
Til Schyr Jhon de Strivelin
Than (fra) Kinrosos, til Dwnfermlyn,
Than he was werra wode and wrathe
And swore mony ane awfue aithe."
(Wynton's Orygynale Cronikil Scot. vol. ii. pp. 181,182.)
The references to this incident are Fordun, xiii. 30,31; Boeth. lib.
fol. 230; Barbour-a-Pinkerton, vol. iii. p.179; Heron's Hist. of Scot. vol.
iii. p.40, &c.
THE ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE BECAME A LEGAL PROCURATOR. - Alexander de Ber,
Abbot of Dunfermline, received a procuratory from King David II., which
conferred on him certain privileges in legal transactions, and a letter
also from the same King to make certain payments to him. (Print. Regist.
Dunf. Nos. 373,374, pp. 256-258.) In the original MS. Register, or
Chartulary, no less than twenty-two monks' names belonging to the Abbey are
adhibited to Charter 374 as witnesses.
1337. - THE TOWN OF PERTH ORDERED TO BE FORTIFIED, the Abbey to pay
the Costs. - Edward III. (of England) ordered the town of Perth to be
fortified at the expense of the "Abbeys of Aberbrothick, Couper, Lindores,
Balmerinock, Dunfermlyn, and St. Andrews." (Maitland's Hist. Scot. vol. i.
1339. - THE MONKS' "JUDGMENT" FINES. - This year, William, Earl of Ross,
Supreme Criminal Judge north of the river Forth, issued a mandate to the
Sheriff of Fife, to pay the eighth part of the fines of his last itinerary
to the monks of Dunfermline. (Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 376, p. 259.)
1340. - THE RIGHT OF THE ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE TO A MAN AND HIS TWO SONS
DISPUTED. - A jury was empannelled on 12th May, to meet the Sheriff of Fife
in the Cemetery of "Katyl" (Kettle), to try the disputed case between the
Abbot of Dunfermline and the Earl of Fife, as to the ownership of a man and
his two sons. The Assize declared that the man and his sons were the
property of the Lord Abbot of Dunfermline. (Print. Regist. Dunf. No.379, p.
378; Tytler's Hist. Scot. vol. ii. p.254.)
SIMON STURY, AND LANDS IN MUSSELBURGH. - The Abbot of Dunfermline made
grant of seven acres of land at Musselburgh to Simon Stury, burgess there.
(Printed Regist. Dunf. No. 235, p. 150.)
1341. - FRENCH NOBILITY IN DUNFERMLINE. - This year Ambassadors,
accompanied by a retinue of the nobility, and a body of soldiers, came to
Scotland to induce David II. to invade England. They succeeded. Edinburgh
could not afford accommodation for the whole of the retinue, accordingly a
great many of the French nobility went to Dunfermline, and other towns, for
suitable lodgings. (Holingshed. Hist. Scot. p.226; Froissart, vol. i.
pp.8-10; Stevenson's An. Scot. pp. 28,29.)
SIR JAMES DE DUNDAS, Excommunicated by the Abbot of Dunfermline, because
persisted in molesting the Abbey boatmen at the landing-rock, North